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Cristalino Jungle Lodge and Alta Floresta, Brazil Birding Trip Report

April - June 2003

By Alex Lees

Black-girdled Barbet (Capito dayi) - Cristalino Jungle Lodge, April 2003. Alex Lees.


I spent the period 3 April 2003 – 19 June 2003 as a volunteer guide at Cristalino Jungle Lodge (CJL) as a precursor to embarking on a PhD with Carlos Peres investigating avian community structure within forest fragments around Alta Floresta. For a review of the site infrastructure and trails systems at CJL see Samuel Hansson's extensive trip report and Whitney (1997). This was my first visit to the Neotropics and the systematic list is biased through a considerable learning curve over that period. As would be expected my lack of prior knowledge of vocalisations led to my missing several species that are not particularly uncommon at CJL – Crainioleuca vulpina, Arremon taciturnus and Saltator maximus for example. Highlights are perhaps too numerous to mention, but the record of one (if not two) Scaled Ground-cuckoo Neomorphus squamiger in early June stands out. Indeed spending two months immersing myself in the world's greatest avifauna in such a beautiful (if fragile) location as Cristalino was the highlight in itself. That much remains to be discovered from such a well-known site as CJL is still evident, the implications this must have for the discovery of new taxa from other locations in Brazil – particularly south of the Amazon and east of the Madeira are self-evident. However the massive erosion of the forest -- the world's highest absolute rate of forest destruction (Whitmore 1997) -- threatens the continued existence of this crucible of biodiversity.

Systematic List

Great Tinamou (Tinamous major) Heard irregularly, usually from the Clearing or on the Rochas and seen once at the Figueira and once at the Hotel.

[White-throated Tinamou (Tinamous guttatus) What was almost certainly this species was glimpsed from the Rochas Trail by the Caja intersection on the 24 April.]

Cinereous Tinamou (Crypturellus cinereus) Common by voice.

Brown Tinamou (Crypturellus obsoletus) Common by voice, both at CJL and around Alta Floresta.

Undulated Tinamou (Crypturellus undulates) Heard with some regularity from the river downstream by the Teles Pires and in igapo around CJL.

Variegated Tinamou (Crypturellus variegates) Heard irregularly from the Rochas Trail and the River.

Brazilian Tinamou (Crypturellus strigulosus) Heard daily and one seen well 8 June attending an Eciton swarm by the Rochas trail, no mention of this behaviour is listed in del Hoyo et al. (1992).

[Small-billed Tinamou (Crypturellus parvirostris) A tinamou flushed from the roadside in Alta Floresta was almost certainly this species.]

Tataupa Tinamou (Crypturellus tataupa) Heard regularly in April but calling frequency decreased until rarely heard in May/June from the Island and on the summit of the Serra. One nest found on the Island and what was presumably this species was glimpsed on the Haffer Trail.

Least Grebe (Tachybaptus dominicus) Several pairs found on ephemeral roadside pools to the south of Alta Floresta on the 3 April.

Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) Seen most weeks along the river.

Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga) Seen fairly regularly along the river.

Cocoi Heron (Ardea cocoi) One to two seen along the lower Cristalino and along the Teles Pires on several dates between mid May and mid June.

Great Egret (Casmerodius albus) Singles regularly seen around Alta Floresta, the Teles Pires Road and on the Teles Pires, but only seen twice along the Cristalino.

Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) Common around Alta Floresta and one-three present daily from May onwards on the Cristalino, often behaving agonistically towards Pilherodius pileatus.

Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) Common around Alta Floresta, evening movements up and down the river occasionally noted.

Striated Heron (Butorides striatus) Common.

Capped Heron (Pilherodius pileatus) Common.

Rufescent Tiger-Heron (Tigrisoma lineatum) Fairly common, three nests located – two in trees overhanging the river at circa 4m and one in an emergent next to the clearing circa 30m up.

Zigzag Heron (Zebrilus undulates) At least three advertising birds of this species, the least known member of the family (del Hoyo et al. 1992) located along the river in April. A nest, perhaps the first found in Brazil, was located on the 5 April, 200m south of the lodge on the east bank of the Cristalino. The nest, a flimsy stick platform containing one white egg was situated about 1.2m above the water in a partially submerged shrub. A photo taken by AG can be found at Cotinga 20:63 (Autumn 2003).

Green Ibis (Mesembrinibis cayennensis) Small parties of up to 6 birds regular at the water's edge and seemingly rather crepuscular in their habits.

American Wood Stork (Mycteria americana) Unrecorded in April and May, the first returning bird was recorded on the 2 June on the Island. Birds were subsequently regular with a maximum of 17 on the 6 June.

King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) Common.

Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) Common, evidently this species has increased in its frequency of occurrence up the Cristalino as I encountered it daily (cf. reports of Samuel Hansson and Curtis Marantz).

Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) Probably overlooked, seen on three occasions around Alta Floresta.

Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus) Common in the degraded habitat to the south of Alta Floresta but also certainly seen twice along the Cristalino. With increasing habitat fragmentation this species is likely to become commoner over the forest and it would thus be dangerous to assume that any yellow-headed Cathartes is C. melambrotus.

Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes melambrotus) Common.

Brazilian Duck (Amazonetta brasiliensis) Regular on the Alta Floresta Lakes and on the Teles Pires Road.

Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) Scarce along the river with perhaps three different family groups located in April/May.

White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) A pair present about 5 miles north of Alta Floresta along the Teles Pires Road were seen on three occasions.

Pearl Kite (Gampsonix swainsonii) Two pairs located around Alta Floresta, one by the airport and Hotel, the other on the Teles Pires road.

Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus) Rather erratic in its appearances at Cristalino and then perhaps most regularly found roosting close to Limão. Seemingly more reliable closer to Alta Floresta.

Gray-headed Kite (Leptodon cayanensis) Single adults seen from the Tower 5 May and from the Saliero 15 June.

Hook-billed Kite (Chondrohierax uncinatus) Regular from the Tower and the River.

Double-toothed Kite (Harpagus bidentatus) A pair seen almost daily from the tower with others seen up and down the river and at Alta Floresta. Mantle colour appeared to several shades paler than that of the wings, a feature not shown in most field guides – e.g. Hilty (2003).

Plumbeous Kite (Ictinia plumbea) Singles seen on five occasions along the Cristalino and occasionally in town, usually with Elanoides forficatus.

Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) At least two birds regular along the Teles Pires Road, the only sightings from Cristalino concerned four birds from the tower on the 31 May.

Tiny Hawk (Accipiter superciliosus) Adults seen twice from the tower on the 10 April and the 10 June and another adult seen at the Hotel on the 28 May.

[Bicoloured Hawk (Accipiter bicolor) A probable seen from the floating deck with AW on the 1 June.]

Gray-bellied Goshawk (Accipiter poliogaster) An adult seen to fly across the Cristalino 1km north of the lodge 1 June, one of the least known Neotropical raptors. [Also observed at Cristalino on 20 August 2002 by Braulio Carlos et al. Simon Woolley trip report.]

Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus) A kettle of 30 distant buteos, almost certainly of this species were seen from the tower on the 14 April.

Short-tailed Hawk (Buteo brachyurus) At least two pairs present close to Alta Floresta and seen with some frequency, seen twice from Cristalino.

Gray-lined Hawk (Asturina nitida) Singles seen twice from the river in early April and a pair seen daily in the Hotel fragment.

Roadside Hawk (Rupornis magnirostris) Common around Alta Floresta.

White Hawk (Leucopternis albicollis) One seen on the Teles Pires Road on the 2 May.

[White-browed Hawk (Leucopternis kuhli) One probably heard at the hotel fragment 18 June, it is possible that the arrival of a pair of Asturina nitida may have usurped the resident pair of L. kuhli here.]

Black-collared Hawk (Busarellus nigricollis) At least two pairs regular upriver by Lagoa Cigana and a single seen along the Teles Pires on the 23 May.

Great Black Hawk (Buteogallus urubutinga) Seen daily along the river where evidently successfully bred (one newly fledged juvenile seen). One was seen to make an unsuccessful attempt to catch a Heliornis fulica.

Black-and-White Hawk-Eagle (Spizastur melanoleucus) One soaring over the river on the 4 June.

Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus) An adult was seen to be mobbed by two Falco rufigularis about 1km north of Limão on the 27 April and a pair was seen distantly from the Tower on the 14 May.

Black Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus tyrannus) One observed for a protracted period hunting in emergent vegetation at the river's edge on the 2 June and singles seen soaring over the river on the 13 June and over Limão on the 14 June.

Crane Hawk (Geranospiza caeruscens) One flew past the Tower on the 24 April.

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) One migrated north high over the Serra on the 15 May.

Black Caracara (Daptrius ater) Common.

Red-throated Caracara (Daptrius americanus) Common, birds flew past the Tower between roosting and feeding sites daily and a pair evidently bred close to the Castanheira trail where a pair together with at least one dependent juvenile were regularly heard in May.

Southern Crested Caracara (Polyborus plancus) One high north over the lodge on the 17 April and five sightings around Alta Floresta.

Laughing Falcon (Herpetotheres cachinnans) Observed four times along the Cristalino, always close to Limão, several pairs around Alta Floresta.

Barred Forest-Falcon (Micrastur ruficollis) One seen and heard from the Tower on the 31 May.

Cryptic Forest-Falcon (Micrastur mintonii) This newly described species (Whittaker 2003) is undoubtedly the most frequently observed Micrastur at Cristalino. Seen or heard on the Rochas, Caja and Serra Trails and at Limão.

American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) At least three pairs around Alta Floresta – Teles Pires.

Bat Falcon (Falco rufigularis) Common, this species has a penchant for owl butterflies Caligo sp.

[large falcon sp. (Falco sp.) A large falcon glimpsed north of the hotel on the 20 April was either an Aplomado (F. femoralis) which would represent the first AF record, or an Orange-breasted Falcon (F. deiroleucus) an individual of which species Bret Whitney reported from the locality a few years previously. (JWW: Or Peregrine?)]

Speckled Chachalaca (Ortallis guttata) Three seen on the 27 April close to Lagoa Cigana.

Spix's Guan (Penelope jacquacu) Common and evidently particularly fond of fruiting cercropia.

Red-throated Piping-Guan (Pipile cujubi) Common – up to 20 could regularly be found early morning perching up on dead trees at Limão.

Bare-faced Curassow (Crax fasciolata) The same group of three birds – a pair and a dependent immature male, seen around the lodge on three occasions. Two other sightings of three birds upstream close to Limão and once 2km downstream close to the Teles Pires.

Razor-billed Curassow (Mitu tuberosa) Seemingly very scarce during my visit – one downstream of the lodge on the 2 May and one on the Haffer Trail 12 June.

Marbled Wood-Quail (Odontophorus gujanensis) Parties seen twice along the Taboca and once along the Caja ext. and the Cacão Trails, probably also heard regularly.

Hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) Common around Lagoa Cigana.

Limpkin (Aramus guarauna) A single bird seen three times at Alta Floresta Lakes.

Dark-winged Trumpeter (Psophia viridis) One seen along the road close to the Borboletas Trail on the 22 April and two seen on the Figueira Trail on the 7 June.

Gray-necked Wood-Rail (Aramides cajanea) At least two pairs around the Alta Floresta Lakes, only recorded once at CJL a single heard from the Clearing on the night of the 9-10 June.

Ash-throated Crake (Porzana albicollis) One heard at Limão on the 31 May.

Gray-breasted Crake (Laterallus exilis) One heard at Limão on the 31 May.

Rufous-sided Crake (Laterallus melanophaius) 2-3 heard at Alta Floresta ponds 29 May.

Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) One Teles Pires Road 22 May.

American Purple Gallinule (Porphyrula martinica) 2-3 pairs Alta Floresta ponds.

Sungrebe (Heliornis fulica) Not uncommon along the Cristalino with perhaps three pairs involved – regular sightings from the lower Cristalino close to the Teles Pires, about 1km upstream of the Lodge and further upstream close to the Haffer Trail.

Sunbittern (Eurypyga helias) Once water levels had begun to recede significantly in late April this species became regular at the river edge.

Wattled Jacana (Jacana jacana) Common around Alta Floresta and upriver around Lagoa Cigana where habitat is suitable.

Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis) Common around Alta Floresta, presumed migrants seen twice over the Cristalino.

Pied Plover (Hoploxypterus cayanus) First seen 22 April on the sandbank of a small lake by the Teles Pires road. The pair that frequents the island were first recorded on the 10 May and seen four times subsequently. Probably more reliable in the dry season when water levels are more suitable (also see subsequent species account).

Large-billed Tern (Phaetusa simplex) One on the Teles Pires 13 June, high water levels presumably preclude the occurrence of this species in the wet season.

Scaled Pigeon (Columba speciosa) Seen or heard irregularly at Limão, from the Tower and on the Borboletas trail.

Picazuro Pigeon (Columba picazuro) Seen twice along the Teles Pires Road and on three occasions in Alta Floresta.

Pale-vented Pigeon (Columba cayennensis) Common on the Island and an apparent movement of birds up the Cristalino in early-mid June when four flocks of up to 30 birds noted close to the lodge on three dates.

Ruddy Pigeon (Columba subvinacea) Common.

Plumbeous Pigeon (Columba plumbea) Common

Ruddy Ground-Dove (Columbina talpacoti) Common around Alta Floresta.

Blue-Ground-Dove (Claravis pretiosa) Unrecorded before the 15th May when a pair found on the Serra Trail. Regular there and along the river. Subsequently, interestingly, Frederic Vauloue found this species to be absent in the wet season too.

White-tipped Dove (Leptotila verreauxi) Common around Alta Floresta.

Gray-fronted Dove (Leptotila rufaxilla) A pair regular around the bungalows and others occasionally seen along the river.

Ruddy-Quail-Dove (Geotrygon montana) Heard irregularly and seen once crossing the river.

Violaceous Quail-Dove (Geotrygon violacea) One seen crossing the river on the 26 April and a singing bird located along the Taboca trail in mid June.

Blue-and-Yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna) Seen daily at CJL but larger groups gathering around Alta Floresta.

Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) Common.

Red-and-Green Macaw (Ara chloroptera) The scarcest of the regular large macaws but still seen on a weekly basis macaws (a single Hyacinth Macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus was seen by George Lopes during my visit along the Teles Pires, presumably a transient from the populations upriver in the state of Para.).

Chestnut-fronted Macaw (Ara severa) Common.

Red-bellied Macaw (Orthopsittaca manilata) Common around Alta Floresta but only seen on six dates along the Cristalino.

White-eyed Parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalmus) Common.

Crimson-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura rhodogaster) Common around the Hotel and seen on 10 dates at CJL from the tower and the river.

Hellmayr's Parakeet (Pyrrhura amazonum) This new taxon (Joseph 2002) was seen daily from the tower, the Serra, the Rochas and the river.

Dusky-billed Parrotlet (Forpus sclateri) Common, birds were seen daily coming down to the beach by the lodge.

Golden-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris chrysopterus) Common.

[Sapphire-rumped Parrotlet (Touit purpurata) Three probables from the tower on the 16 May.]

White-bellied Parrot (Pionites leucogaster) Seen daily from the tower and often heard from the other trail systems, nests found on the Rochas and Castanheira trails.

Orange-cheeked Parrot (Pionopsitta barrabandi) Seen twice from the Tower in April and once from the river close to the Haffer trail on the 12 June.

Blue-headed Parrot (Pionus menstruus) Common.

Yellow-crowned Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala) Uncommon, although seen almost daily in early-mid June.

Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica) Seen twice from the Tower and twice at Limão – on one occasion a flock of eight birds.

Mealy Amazon (Amazona farinose) Common around Alta Floresta, a flock of up to 30 birds was regular close to the Hotel. Seen on 4 dates from the tower.

Kawall's Amazon (Amazona kawalli) Seen on five dates from the Tower, on three dates from the River and once from the Serra with increasing frequency as time progressed – possibly attributable to local movements.

Red-fan Parrot (Deroptyus accipitrinus) Fairly common around CJL and in Alta Floresta, seen daily from the Tower.

Dark-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus melacoryphus) One seen in stunted elfin forest at the summit of the Serra trail 23 April.

Pearly-breasted Cuckoo (Coccyzus julieni) Two records of this rare austral migrant, one in the hotel fragment on the 2 May and another flying over the Cristalino upriver by the lagoons on the 19 May. It should be pointed out however that the limit of this species breeding range is unknown and this species presence in the area should be monitored carefully (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya cayana) Common.

Black-bellied Cuckoo (Piaya melanogaster) Common, perhaps seen with a greater frequency along the river than the preceding species.

Little Cuckoo (Piaya minuta) Fairly common along the Cristalino and also seen on the south side of the Teles Pires and by the Bungalows.

Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani) Common around Alta Floresta, but along the Cristalino only seen at Limão.

Greater Ani (Crotophaga major) Only seen twice – a group of eight upriver at Lagoa Cigana on the 4 May and two seen a few kilometres upstream of the lodge on the 26 May.

Guira Cuckoo (Guira guira) Fairly common around agricultural land close to Alta Floresta.

Scaled Ground-cuckoo (Neomorphus squamiger) The undoubted highlight of my 2½ months at CJL was the discovery of this species attending an Eciton swarm on the Rochas trail (600m) on the 7 June. This record represents the first sighting by a visiting ornithologist since a ground cuckoo sp. glimpsed by Ted Parker in August 1991 (Zimmer et al. 1997). The combination of an all pale white bill, pale blue facial skin and rufous-vent combined with the absecne of a prominent breastband indicates the bird to be N. squamiger, a contentious split (del Hoyo et al. 1997, Clements 2000) and regarded as near-threatened due to habitat clearance in the lower Rio Tapajós area. The diagnostic bill clapping was recorded and later verified by B. Carlos. It is probable that two birds were involved as indicated by the apparent presence of a second bird bill-clapping on the back of the tape, a situation that was also suspected in the field.

Southern Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl (Otus usta) One bird called nightly by the lodge clearing and others were heard at the Saliero and at the Hotel.

Crested Owl (Lophostrix cristata) Heard at the Saliero and on the Rochas close to the Figueira.

Amazonian Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium hardyi) Heard irregularly from the tower, the clearing and in Alta Floresta. One bird roosted erratically in the large dead tree in front of the tower.

Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) Common around Alta Floresta.

Black-banded Owl (Strix huhula) Heard at the Saliero on the 5 June.

[Mottled Owl (Strix virgata) What was presumably this species was heard at the Hotel on the 27 May.]

Great Potoo (Nyctibius grandis) Spotlighted along the river on six occasions, a day-roosting bird located in mid June close to the Haffer Trail.

Common Potoo (Nyctibius griseus) Commonly spotlighted along the river.

Short-tailed Nighthawk (Lurocalis semitorquatus) Common

Pauraque (Nyctridomus albicollis) Several pairs close to the lodge, seen three times by the river and at least 15 birds counted on four miles of road on the south side of the Teles Pires.

Ocellated Poorwill (Niyctiphrynus ocellatus) At least three calling males located along the Rochas Trail close to the Saliero.

Blackish Nightjar (Caprimulgus nigrescens) Common around any rocky habitats and also found roosting on trails seemingly far from natural rock formations.

Ladder-tailed Nightjar (Hydropsalis climacocerca) Common along the rivers.

Sooty Swift (Cypseloides fumigatus) A dark Cypseloides seen from the tower on the 16 May was almost certainly this species.

Amazonian Swift (Chaetura viridipennis) Common, perhaps decreasing in abundance from May onwards.

Gray-rumped Swift (Chaetura cinereiventris) Common.

Pale-rumped Swift (Chaetura egregia) Common.

[Ashy-tailed Swift (Chaetura meridionalis) 200 Chaeturas that migrated north past the tower on the 10 April were probably this species, which ought to be a regular migrant through the region (Hilty 2003).]

Short-tailed Swift (Chaetura brachyura) Seen with some regularity over the Cristalino with records on 15 dates, more abundant to the south of the Teles Pires.

Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift (Panyptila cayennensis) Two birds seen close to the Hotel on the 12 May.

Fork-tailed Palm-Swift (Tachornis squamata) Common around the palm grove close to Lagoa Cigana and around Alta Floresta in suitable habitats. Irregularly seen from the lodge.

Hairy Hermit (Glaucis hirsute) One sighting, by the stream adjacent to the Taboca trail on the 7th June.

Large hermits sp. (Phaetornis sp.) Large hermits were fairly common in the terra firme forest and around the Lodge where one was attending what was presumed to be an auxiliary nest throughout April-June. There seems to be considerable debate as to how many and which species of large hermits occur here in northern Mato Grosso and although the general consensus has been for P. malaris it seems likely that P. supercilliosus or P. hispidus could also be occurring.

Reddish Hermit (Phaetornis rubber) One on the west bank of the Teles Pires close to the boat landing on the 5 April.

Little Hermit (Phaetornis longuemareus) Seen on three occasions at CJL and twice in the hotel fragment.

Gray-breasted Sabrewing (Campylopterus largipennis) Fairly common.

Swallow-tailed Hummingbird (Campylopterus macrourus) One on the summit of the Serra Trail on the 15th June. This species is migratory or at least subject to seasonal movements over its large range (A. Whittaker pers com).

White-necked Jacobin (Florisuga mellivora) Common.

Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis) Common.

Black-bellied Thorntail (Discosura langsdorffi) A male from the Tower on the 21 May and a female at the same place on the 10 June both attending flowering Inga trees. Both races of this bird, these individuals being of the Central Amazonian race D. l. langsdorfi are considered rare throughout their range (del Hoyo 1999), although no doubt the bird's small size and canopy-frequenting habits do not lend it to easy detection.

Fork-tailed Woodnymph (Thalurania furcata) Common.

White-chinned Sapphire (Hylocharis cyanus) Common.

Versicolored Emerald (Agyrtria versicolor) Common.

[Glittering-throated Emerald (Polyerata fimbriata) Birds looking more like this species than the former were seen briefly by the Bungalows on two occasions, but it is possible that they may represent variation within the local forms of A. versicolor.]

Black-eared Fairy (Heliothryx aurita) Seen three times – on the Haffer Trail, on the Caja Extension and at Limão.

Long-billed Starthroat (Heliomaster longirostris) Fairly regular at the river's edge and on the Island.

Amethyst Woodstar (Calliphlox amethystine) A pair were seen with some regularity around the Lodge and at least two pairs at the summit of the Serra Trail.

Black-tailed Trogon (Trogon melanurus) Common.

White-tailed Trogon (Trogon viridis) Common.

Collared Trogon (Trogon collaris) Fairly common.

Black-throated Trogon (Trogon rufus) Scarce, only heard on three occasions but almost certainly overlooked.

Blue-crowned Trogon (Trogon curucui) Fairly common, most reliable around the Serra and the Bungalows.

Violaceous Trogon (Trogon violaceus) Scarce, seen most regularly from the Tower and around the Saliero.

Ringed Kingfisher (Ceryle torquata) Not seen daily along the river so perhaps only one-two pairs involved.

Amazon Kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona) Common.

Green Kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana) Fairly common along the river.

Green-and-Rufous Kingfisher (Chloroceryle inda) Common.

American Pygmy Kingfisher (Chloroceryle aenea) Seen on six dates along the Cristalino and once on the Teles Pires.

Broad-billed Motmot (Electron platyrhynchum) Heard at the Saliero, the Haffer Trail and below the Serra.

Blue-crowned Motmot (Momotus momota) Common.

Brown Jacamar (Brachygalba lugubris) One on the Orchidiea Loop on the 31st May and one on the Island on the 3rd and 16th June.

Blue-necked Jacamar (Galbula cyanicollis) Common, seen on the Haffer, Rochas, Taboca, and Orchidiea trails. The amount of blue on the head of this species varies clinally and has in the past caused confusion with its sister taxon north of the Amazon – Yellow-billed Jacamar (Galbula albirostris), indeed many birds of this species – perhaps females or immatures seemed to lack blue tones entirely (del Hoyo et al 2002).

Rufous-tailed Jacamar (Galbula ruficauda) Common the river's edge, on the island and around secondary habitats.

Paradise Jacamar (Galbula dea) Common.

Great Jacamar (Jacamerops aurea) Fairly common, territories on the Rochas, Figueira/Taboca and Borboletas Trails.

White-necked Puffbird (Notharchus macrorhynchus) Only two territories registered, one at the Hotel and one at the Tower, certainly overlooked because of its unobtrusive habits.

Brown-banded Puffbird (Notharchus ordii) A pair perched in the subcanopy of an emergent tree 1.5km downstream of the lodge on the 10 May, a pair from the Tower on the 16 May, a single just below the Serra on the 24 May and a single by the river at the start of the Serra Trail on the 12 June. Evidently now this species vocalisations have been learnt what was once a veritable enigma (Hilty 2003) is being found at a range of sites in the Amazon basin (A. Whittaker pers com.).

Pied Puffbird (Notharchus tectus) A single seen three times on the top of the Serra and a single seen once upriver on the 12 April.

Collared Puffbird (Bucco capensis) One on the Kawall's Amazon Trail on the 24 May was close to an inactive swarm of Eciton ants. This little-known species (Zimmer 1997) is apparently highly sensitive to disturbance (dell Hoyo 2002).

Striolated Puffbird (Nystalus striolatus) Three sightings – a single on the summit of the Serra on the 23 April, a pair by the Bungalows on the 24 May and a single on the Borboletas trail on the 20 May.

Rufous-capped Nunlet (Nonnula ruficapilla) One on the Caja trail on the 10 May and a pair apparently flushed from the ground and thus presumably prospecting nest-burrows on the Taboca on the 21 May.

Black-fronted Nunbird (Monasa nigrifrons) Common.

White-fronted Nunbird (Monasa morphoeus) Common, rarely at the river edge unlike the preceding species.

Swallow-wing Puffbird (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) Common.

Black-girdled Barbet (Capito dayi) Common, seemingly a rather opportunistic species – recorded with mixed flocks, singly and at Eciton antswarms. A pair fiercely guarded a fruiting tree by the bungalows in early April behaving aggressively towards other visiting frugivorous species – e.g. Dacnis sp.

Chestnut-eared Aracari (Pteroglossus castanotis) Common.

Lettered Aracari (Pteroglossus inscriptus) Common.

Red-necked Aracari (Pteroglossus bitorquatus) Common.

Curl-crested Aracari (Pteroglossus beauharnaesii) Common, usually seen from the tower or the river.

Gould's Toucanet (Selenidera gouldii) Scarce, heard or seen from the Rochas, Castanheira and Borboletas Trails and at Limão.

Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus) Common, but less so than the following species.

Red-billed Toucan (Ramphastos tucanus) Common, note name and taxonomic change – formerly known as Cuvier's Toucan (del Hoyo et al. 1999).

Bar-breasted Piculet (Picumnus aurifrons) Fairly common, recorded with mixed flocks and singly from a range of trails.

Yellow-throated Woodpecker (Piculus flavigula) Scarce, seen on the Haffer, Taboca and Rochas Trails.

Golden-green Woodpecker (Piculus chrysochloros) Uncommon, recorded on 8 dates from a variety of trails.

Chestnut Woodpecker (Celeus elegans) Common.

Scale-breasted Woodpecker (Celeus grammicus) Common.

Cream-coloured Woodpecker (Celeus flavus) Fairly common, most reliably found close to the Lodge, usually in groups of 3-4 birds.

Ringed Woodpecker (Celeus torquatus) Scarce, heard on the Rochas and Caja and seen irregularly from the Tower and Clearing.

Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus) Common.

Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus) Common.

Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus) One with a mixed flock in várzea scrub on the south bank of the Teles Pires on the 10 June.

Red-stained Woodpecker (Veniliornis affinis) Common, often with mixed flocks.

Crimson-crested Woodpecker (Campephilus melanoleucos) Common around Alta Floresta, but scarce along the Cristalino with only two territories registered – one by the Teles Pires and the other close to the lodge.

Red-necked Woodpecker (Campephilus rubricollis) Common.

Plain-crowned Spinetail (Synallaxis gujanensis) Heard on three occasions on the Island.

Ruddy Spinetail (Synallaxis rutilans) Heard at the Saliero, by the bungalows and at the Hotel.

Chestnut-throated Spinetail (Synallaxis cherriei) This enigmatic species is surprisingly common at CJL, pairs located on the Taboca (2), Cacão, Serra and Haffer Trails.

Speckled Spinetail (Cranioleuca gutturata) One with a subcanopy mixed flock on the Castanheira Trail on the 10 June.

Point-tailed Palmcreeper (Berlepschia rikeri) A pair heard at the Mauritia palm swamp up river on the 19 May.

Striped Woodhaunter (Hyloctistes subulatus) Seemingly uncommon with understory mixed flocks.

Chestnut-winged Hookbill (Ancitrops strigilatus) Fairly common with canopy mixed flocks, often seen from the bungalows and clearing.

Rufous-rumped Foliage-Gleaner (Philydor erythrocercus) Common flock member of understory flocks.

Chestnut-winged Foliage-Gleaner (Philydor erythropterus) Fairly common with canopy mixed flocks, often with Ancitrops strigilatus.

Rufous-tailed Foliage-Gleaner (Philydor ruficaudatus) Fairly common with canopy/subcanopy mixed flocks.

Pará Foliage-Gleaner (Automolus paraensis) I only saw or heard this recently described species (Zimmer 2002) on three dates with a mixed flock around the end of the Rochas Trail.

Buff-throated Foliage-Gleaner (Automolus ochrolaemus) Fairly common with understory mixed flocks (and occasionally on its own), often quite skulking.

Chestnut-crowned Foliage-Gleaner (Automolus rufipileatus) Seen on three occasions with understory mixed flocks, typically foraged high in vine tangles.

Crested Foliage-Gleaner (Anabazenops dorsalis) Fairly common with mixed flocks in the bamboo of the Taboca, Haffer and Cacão Trails. One was seen to display its crest in response to playback on the Cacao Trail at which point it bore a passing resemblance to a vocalising Great Reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus)!

[Rufous-tailed Xenops (Xenops milleri) What was presumably this species was located following an understory mixed flock by the start of the Amazon Kawall/Haffer Trails on the 24 May.]

Plain Xenops (Xenops minutus) Common with and independent of mixed flocks.

Streaked Xenops (?) (Xenops rutilans) A pair (with possibly a third bird) was seen well on the summit of the Serra Trail on the 5 April. However these birds appeared to lack the prominent malar streak of this species, which was at best indistinct. Could these birds represent an undescribed race or is variation clinal? Apparently the song is typical of X. rutilans.

Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Sclerurus mexicanus) One seen well after playback on the Haffer Trail 2 June and another heard on the Rochas 3 June.

Short-billed Leaftosser (Sclerurus rufigularis) One seen well on the Saliero loop 8 June.

Gray-throated Leaftosser (Sclerurus albigularis) AW found a calling bird on the Taboca 31 May. In addition a Sclerurus sp. was flushed from a nest hole on the bank of the stream adjacent to the Taboca Trail on the 7 June.

Plain-brown Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) Recorded following Eciton ants at swarms along the Rochas, Taboca and Borboletas Trails.

White-chinned Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla merula) Recorded following Eciton ants along the Rochas, Taboca, Cacão and Borboletas Trails. I found this species to be very confiding at swarms allowing approach to 2m.

Spot-throated Woodcreeper (Deconychura stictolaema) A pair on the Rochas Trail on the 9 April.

Long-tailed Woodcreeper (Deconychura longicauda) One heard from the tower on the 31 May.

Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus) Fairly common, usually with mixed flocks – seen on 10 dates.

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (Glyphorhynchus spirurus) Common, a nest was located in early May on the Rochas trail, situated in a tree crevice about 70cm off the ground, the adult would roost in the hole every night brooding the single chick.

Long-billed Woodcreeper (Nasica longirostris) Not uncommon by voice but rather unobtrusive, pairs or singles seen crossing the river on seven occasions and seen once really well right by the clearing.

Strong-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus) Uncommon, seen three times at CJL and once at the Hotel.

Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper (Dendrexetastes rufigula) Seen or heard on three dates with mixed flocks at the Hotel Fragment, never along the Cristalino.

Uniform Woodcreeper (Hylexetastes uniformis) One found accompanying a mixed flock by the Saliero on the 13 April.

Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes certhia) Common.

Black-banded Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes picumnus) A pair found attending an Eciton swarm along the Taboca Trail on the 9 May and a single seen at a swarm on the Caja extension on the 8 June.

Straight-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus picus) Fairly common.

Buff-throated Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus (guttatus) eytoni) Fairly common, usually close to the forest edge. Note the race eytoni may be considered a separate species – Dusky-billed Woodcreeper (Ridgely & Tudor 1994).

Striped Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus obsoletus) Regular along the river in igapo/várzea forest.

Spix's Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus spixii/elegans) Common.

Lineated Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes albolineatus) Common with canopy mixed flocks.

Red-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) A pair of scythebills foraging at midlevels with a mixed flock on the igapo of the Taboca Trail on the 7 June were almost certainly this species. They were not heard to call but their bills were significantly larger than those of C. procurvoides. Both C. Marantz and P. Donahue have drawn attention to this unrecognised population of scythebills at Cristalino and R. Boegh questioned the reported absence of C. trochilirostris.

Curve-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus procurvoides) A pair seen regularly with a mixed flock in bamboo along the Rochas Trail, they typically foraged between two and five metres. The population at CJL apparently differ significantly vocally from other populations of procurvoides and may represent a new species (B. Carlos pers com.).

Fasciated Antshrike (Cymbilaimus lineatus) Fairly common, usually with mixed flocks.

Great Antshrike (Taraba major) One with a mixed flock in várzea scrub on the south bank of the Teles Pires 10 June.

Glossy Antshrike (Sakesphorus luctuosus) Common along the River, on the Island and at Lagoa Cigana.

Chestnut-backed Antshrike (Thamnophilus palliates) Seen with some regularity with mixed flocks on the Taboca and Haffer trails usually not far from bamboo.

Natterer's Slaty Antshrike (Thamnophilus stictocephalus) 2-3 pairs present on the Serra and also heard at the end of the Caja Extension.

White-shouldered Antshrike (Thamnophilus aethiops) Seemingly a rather low-density species pairs located only on the Taboca, Haffer and Rochas Trails.

Plain-winged Antshrike (Thamnophilus schistaceus) Fairly commonly encountered antshrike, usually found singly.

Amazonian Antshrike (Thamnophilus amazonicus) Uncommon, seen on most visits to the Haffer Trail with and independently of flocks, only seen on three occasions elsewhere.

Spot-winged Antshrike (Pygiptila stellaris) Perhaps the commonest antshrike and often found in edge habitats.

Cinereous Antshrike (Thamnomanes caesius) Common, invariably the flock leader of understory flocks.

Saturnine Antshrike (Thamnomanes saturninus) One, possibly two pairs located around the Caja/Rochas Trails, seen on five occasions with a mixed flock and observed courtship feeding on the 20/5 - the male offering the female a large (unidentified) invertebrate.

Amazonian Streaked Antwren (Myrmotherula multostriata) Common at the river's edge, sometimes with mixed flocks.

White-flanked Antwren (Myrmotherula axillaries) Seemingly very scarce at CJL as noted by Zimmer et al (1997), with only two pairs recorded – one on the Rochas and one on the Haffer.

Plain-throated Antwren (Myrmotherula hauxwelli) Common, often recorded associating with mixed flocks – contra the general rule in Ridgely & Tudor (1994).

White-eyed Antwren (Myrmotherula leucophthalma) Fairly common member of understory mixed flocks.

Ornate Antwren (Myrmotherula ornate) As with other obligate bamboo-dwellers this species has apparently undergone a serious decline after a large-scale die-off of bamboo at CJL. Two territories located, one at the foot of the Serra and another on the Cacão.

Pygmy Antwren (Myrmotherula brachyura) Common.

Sclater's Antwren (Myrmotherula sclateri) Seen one three dates with mixed flocks from the tower.

Long-winged Antwren (Myrmotherula longipennis) Common.

Gray Antwren (Myrmotherula menetriesii) Common.

Rufous-winged Antwren (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus) Perhaps the same pair seen on four occasions from the clearing and on the Caja Trail.

Dot-winged Antwren (Microrhopias quixensis) Common on the Borboletas trail on the south side (east bank) of the Teles Pires, not dependent on bamboo.

Emilia's Antwren (Microrhopias (quixensis) emiliae) This distinctive taxon (Zimmer et al. 1997) (shortly to be upgraded to specific status) is fairly common in bamboo on the north (east) bank of the Teles Pires.

White-fringed Antwren (Formicivora grisea) Seen or heard on three occasions on the Serra.

Xingu Antbird (Drymophila subochracea) Common in Guadua bamboo, another soon to be recognised taxon. It seems likely that this species is competitively dominant over Microrhopias quixensis and possibly Myrmotherula ornate, this is of particularly importance at the time of the study as a large die-off of bamboo has reduced available habitat considerably.

Gray Antbird (Cercomacra cinerascens) Common.

Blackish Antbird (Cercomacra nigrescens) Scarce, seen on the Taboca and Borboletas Trails.

Manu Antbird (Cercomacra manu) Recorded regularly from the bamboo on the Taboca and Haffer Trails. The geographically distinct population in the Southern Amazon may soon be recognised as specifically distinct from the populations on the other side of the Continent.

White-backed Fire-Eye (Pyriglena leuconota) Recorded following Eciton swarms on the Taboca, Rochas and Caja Extension Trails. Of three active antswarms on the 8 June only one attracted this species but this was attended by seven individuals.

White-browed Antbird (Myrmoborus leucophrys) Common in bamboo.

Black-faced Antbird (Myrmoborus myotherinus) Fairly common, regular at antswarms.

Warbling Antbird (Hypocnemis cantator) Common, occasionally at antswarms.

Band-tailed Antbird (Hypocnemoides maculicauda) Fairly common along the Cristalino and Teles Pires.

Spot-winged Antbird (Schistocichla leucostigma) One pair by the small stream at the end of the Haffer Trail.

Silvered Antbird (Sclateria naevia) Heard on five occasions along the river with perhaps three different territories.

Chestnut-tailed Antbird (Myrmeciza hemimelaena) Common in the hotel fragment, in addition a Myrmeciza glimpsed on the Rochas on the 29 April was either this species or biogeographically more likely Myrmeciza atrothorax.

Black-throated Antbird (Myrmeciza atrothorax) Common on the west bank of the Teles Pires.

Bare-eyed Antbird (Rhegmatorhina gymnops) Present at every active Eciton swarm located but somewhat more shy than Phlegopsis nigromaculata.

Spot-backed Antbird (Hylophylax naevia) Uncommon and unobtrusive antbird, recorded on the Haffer, Castanheira and Rochas Trails.

Scale-backed Antbird (Hylophylax poecilinota) The rarest of the four obligate ant followers only recorded twice at Eciton swarms but also seen following a non-Eciton swarm on one occasion. The population (species) on the north (east) bank of the Teles Pires differs by almost 7% at mtDNA loci from the population (species) on the south bank (D. Davison pers com).

Dot-backed Antbird (Hylophylax punctulata) A pair found in the várzea of the Borboletas Trail on the 20 May.

Black-spotted Bare-eye (Phlegopsis nigromaculata) The commonest obligate ant follower, up to ten birds attended some swarms, often with dependent juveniles which lacked the red orbital present in adults.

Noble Antthrush (Chamaeza nobilis) Seemingly not vocal at the end of the wet season, I finally located a pair of this species at the Saliero 4 June and saw one there after playback on the 17 June.

Rufous-capped Antthrush (Formicarius colma) Singing birds heard from the Tower and on the Haffer trail and exceptional views of a silent bird down to 5 metres on the Rochas/Caja ext intersection on the 9 June.

Black-faced Antthrush (Formicarius analis) Heard on most trails and one seen very well next to the clearing on the 9 May.

Variegated Antpitta (Grallaria varia) Heard from the Tower and the Saliero, possibly the same individual.

Spotted Antpitta (Hylopezus macularius) Heard at the Saliero and at Limão.

Thrush-like Antpitta (Myrmothera campanisona) The commonest antpitta by voice, heard or seen on the Cacão (2), Taboca (2) and Rochas Trails.

Snethlage's Gnateater (Conopophaga snethlageae) What was presumably this gnateater was heard on the Cacão Trail on the 16 June.

Slender-footed Tyrannulet (Zimmerius gracilipes) Only seen regularly around the bungalows, where one pair consistently present.

White-lored Tyrannulet (Ornithion inerme) Seen or heard daily from the tower and occasionally on other trails.

Southern Beardless Tyrannulet (Camptostoma obsoletum) Fairy common at edge habitats.

[Mouse-coloured Tyrannulet (Phaeomyias murina) What was almost certainly this species was seen around the bungalows on the morning of the 9 April.]

Southern Scrub Flycatcher (Sublegatus modestus) Scrub flycatchers all showing characteristics of this species were found wintering or staging on the Serra, from the Tower and on the Island.

Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet (Tyrannulus elatus) Seemingly quite scarce, seen or heard only three times, along the river.

Greenish Elaenia (Myiopagis viridicata) One close to the Borboletas Trail 23 May in scrub close to the road.

Forest Elaenia (Myiopagis gaimardii) Common.

Gray Elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps) Seen or heard four times from the tower, probably overlooked elsewhere.

Small-billed Elaenia (Elaenia parvirostris) One with a mixed flock on the Island, 8 June.

Amazonian Tyrannulet (Inezia subflava) Often heard on the Island by the river edge but difficult to see.

Ochre-bellied Flycatcher (Mionectes oleaginous) A single bird held territory around the Bungalows throughout April.

Sepia-capped Flycatcher (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) One with a mixed flock on the Haffer Trail, 24 May.

Yellow Tyrannulet (Capsiempis flaveola) Seemingly quite scarce, one territory on the Taboca Trail.

Ringed Antpipit (Corythopis torquata) Exceptional views of one 8 June attending an Eciton antswarm on the Caja Ext. the bird was seen to make two sally-strikes against prey items fleeing the front line of the swarm and was driven off on one occasion by an adult Phlegopsis nigromaculata. It is listed as a rare visitor to antswarms in Hilty (2003).

Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant (Myiornis ecaudatus) Common around Alta Floresta but around CJL only around the bungalows, and on the Borboletas and Serra Trails.

Helmeted Pygmy-Tyrant (Lophotriccus galeatus) Common, at least two vocal types identified.

Snethlage's Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus minor) Fairly common on the south bank of the Teles Pires where typically forages between 2 and 5m.

White-bellied Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus griseipectus) Common, recorded in both terra firme and igapo forest, note taxonomic change (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997).

Zimmer's Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus aenigma) Seen three times on the summit of the Serra Trail. On the 12 June a calling bird was observed to interact seemingly aggressively with another individual flaring its gorget, erecting its crest and thrusting its head out forward and low whilst running through a repertoire of trills.

Spotted Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum maculatum) Common on the Island and around Lagoa Cigana.

Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum latirostre) A Todirostrum initially suspected of being a Smoky-fronted Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum fumifrons) but later re-identified with reference to photos of the species in (Mayer 2000) was seen accompanying a mixed flock in várzea scrub on the south bank of the Teles Pires on the 10/6 by AL and AK.

Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum) Seen with some regularity from the tower but otherwise only seen once from the Rochas by the Figueira intersection.

Large-headed Flatbill (Ramphotrigon megacephala) Fairly common, most suitably large areas of bamboo held a pair of this species.

Dusky-tailed Flatbill (Ramphotrigon fuscicauda) Apparently fairly scarce, only two territories located both on the Taboca Trail, also a bamboo specialist.

Rufous-tailed Flatbill (Ramphotrigon ruficauda) Seen or heard on the Taboca, Borboletas and Caja Trails and from the River.

Olivaceous Flatbill (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus) AW heard a calling bird from the tower on the 31 May and I glimpsed what was almost certainly this species attracted to taped calls of Glaucidium hardyi at the Saliero on the 15 June.

Gray-crowned Flycatcher (Tolmomyias poliocephalus) Fairly common along the river's edge, often with mixed flocks.

Yellow-breasted Flycatcher (Tolmomyias flaviventris) Two seen from the tower on the 7 April.

Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Tolmomyias assimilis) Fairly common in terra firme forest, often with mixed flocks.

[Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Tolomyias sulphurescens) A probable was seen but not heard to call adjacent to the Rochas Trail in deciduous scrub.]

Golden-crowned Spadebill (Platyrinchus coronatus) Singing males in igapo at the beginning of the Haffer and close to the end of the Taboca.

White-crested Spadebill (Platyrinchus platyrhyncos) Fairly common but rather unobtrusive.

Amazonian Royal Flycatcher (Onychorhynchus coronatus) Two territories located, by the Saliero stream and by the Taboca Stream, AW found a nest at the end of the Haffer Trail. (Note the new name for this member of this recently split superspecies (Clements (2001))

Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher (Terenotriccus erythrurus) Seen irregularly on the Taboca, Rochas and Haffer trails, both with and independent of mixed flocks.

Bran-coloured Flycatcher (Myiophobus fasciatus) One on the Taboca Trail on the 9 May foraged at 2-3m in the understory of bamboo. This behaviour although seemingly unusual for this taxon was noted in Peru for migrant Myiophobus fasciatus (Ridgely & Tudor 1994).

Euler's Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus euleri) Fairly common.

Drab Water-Tyrant (Ochthornis littoralis) Common along the Teles Pires but never seen more than 30m up the Cristalino – evidently this species occurs at a lower density along black-water rivers because of their reduced invertebrate populations.

Black-backed Water-Tyrant (Fluvicola albiventer) One seen along the river south of the lodge on the 11 April.

Long-tailed Tyrant (Colonia colonus) A pair were seen daily from the Tower with another pair located along the Castanheira Trail on the 10th June.

Bright-rumped Attila (Attila spadiceus) Calling birds heard irregularly from the tower and the Serra.

Cinnamon Attila (Attila cinnamomeus) Fairly common along the river.

Grayish Mourner (Rhytipterna simplex) Common, often with mixed species flocks.

Cinereous Mourner (Laniocera hypopyrrha) Fairly common, heard on the Rochas, Borboletas, Taboca and Haffer trails and at Limão.

Short-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus ferox) Common along the river edge, at large clearings and on the Island.

[Brown-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus) A probable was seen briefly from the river on the 8 May.]

Swainson's Flycatcher (Myiarchus swainsoni) One found on the Serra on the 24 May was seen on every subsequent visit, one of only a handful of records for CJL.

Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Myiarchus tuberculifer) Regular with canopy flocks, usually heard or seen from the tower.

Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus) Common around Alta Floresta but scarce along the Cristalino.

Lesser Kiskadee (Philohydor lictor) Common along the rivers.

Boat-billed Flycatcher (Megarynchus pitangua) Three different individuals found frequenting the Island, Limão and at the Hotel.

Rusty-margined Flycatcher (Myiozetetes cayanensis) Common.

Dusky-chested Flycatcher (Myiozetetes luteiventris) Scarce, seen or heard on four occasions, most often from the tower.

Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculates) One around the bungalows on the 17 April.

Piratic Flycatcher (Legatus leucophaius) One from the Tower on the 9 April.

Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher (Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus) Common, seen daily from the tower and also along the river, at Limão and on the top of the Serra.

[Sulphury Flycatcher (Tyrannopsis sulphurea) What was almost certainly this species was seen crossing the river by the Mauritia palm grove by Lagoa Cigana on the 4 May.]

Fork-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus savana) One seen by the airport in Alta Floresta on the 1 May and another seen on the Island on the 3 June.

Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) Common.

Chestnut-crowned Becard (Pachyramphus castaneus) Seen three times with canopy mixed flocks.

White-winged Becard (Pachyramphus polychopterus) A pair recorded almost daily with a mixed flock by the Bungalows and also seen on the Borboletas Trail.

Black-capped Becard (Pachyramphus marginatus) Recorded on three occasions with subcanopy mixed flocks on the Rochas Trail.

Masked Tityra (Tityra semifasciata) Common.

Black-crowned Tityra (Tityra inquisitor) Two-three pairs seen in April at CJL and at the hotel, but absent after May.

Red-headed Manakin (Pipra rubrocapilla) Probably the commonest manakin, leks on most trails.

Snow-capped Manakin (Pipra nattereri) Heard along the Caja, Haffer and Cacão Trails but frustratingly hard to see, even when vocalising. I finally got satisfactory views on the Cacão on the 17 June.

Band-tailed Manakin (Pipra fasciicauda) Leks on the Taboca, Haffer and Cacão Trails, birds were also seen three times at fruiting trees close to the bungalows.

White-crowned Manakin (Pipra pipra) A female on the Caja Trail 16 June (also seen by AK & RB), the third location that this species has been reported from at CJL.

Blue-backed Manakin (Chiroxiphia pareola) Seemingly a rather unobtrusive manakin, seen or heard from the Castanheira, Tapiri, Rochas and Serra trails.

White-bearded Manakin (Manacus manacus) A single female was located in the forest fragment behind the airport in AF on 29 May in Cercropia dominated scrub along the edge of the forest.

Fiery-capped Manakin (Machaeropterus pyrocephalus) Fairly common by voice with many leks located e.g. along the Caja, Cacão, Rochas and Borboletas Trails.

Cinnamon Tyrant-manakin (Neopipo cinnamomea) A single bird, not heard to vocalise, located on the Caja Trail on the 10 May. The dense lower growth on sandy soil of the Caja Trail fits well with the published requirements of this little-known species (Ridgely & Tudor 1994).

Flame-crowned Manakin (Heterocercus linteatus) Leks located in igapo forest of the Caja, Kawall and Borboletas Trails. One seen on the Island 25 April suggests that there is an undiscovered lek at this location too.

Dwarf-Tyrant Manakin (Tyranneutes stolzmanni) Commonly heard in both igapo and terra-firme forest.

Thrush-like Mourner (Schiffornis turdinus) Common.

Várzea Mourner (Schiffornis major) Common upriver around Lagoa Cigana and highly responsive to playback.

Splanged Cotinga (Cotinga cayana) Common, most frequently seen from the tower and along the river.

[Plum-throated Cotinga (Cotinga maynana) What was presumably a female of this species which would represent a considerable range extension was found attending a fruiting tree on the Borboletas trail on the 20 May, accompanied by an immature Pompadour Cotinga (Xipholena punicea). Owing to the brevity of the observation and the rarity of the species, this record remains hypothetical.]

Pompadour Cotinga (Xipholena punicea) A female along the Cristalino on the 5 April, an immature on the Borboletas Trail 20 May and a male flying over the Cristalino on the 4 June.

White-browed Purpletuft (Iodopleura isabellae) Unrecorded until the 14 May after which regular at the tower with up to six recorded per visit.

Screaming Piha (Lipaugus vociferans) Common, foraging birds often noted some distance from leks.

Amazonian Umbrellabird (Cephalopterus ornatus) Seen on eight dates, usually from the river but also from the tower on two occasions.

Bare-necked Fruitcrow (Gymnoderus foetidus) Common, a group of 20 recorded on the Serra twice in early April.

Wing-barred Piprites (Piprites chloris) Fairly common, often with mixed flocks.

White-winged Swallow (Tachycineta albiventer) Common around CJL and in Alta Floresta.

Brown-chested Martin (Phaeoprogne tapera) Seen on five dates along the Cristalino and twice in Alta Floresta.

Gray-breasted Martin (Progne chalybea) Common, a large roost on the radio-mast in Alta Floresta close to the airport.

[Purple Martin (Progne subis) What was presumably this species (and not P. chalybea) was seen from the coach about 20km south of Alta Floresta on the 3 April.]

White-banded Swallow (Atticora fasciata) Common along the Cristalino, scarcer on the Teles Pires and not recorded south of this river.

White-thighed Swallow (Neochelidon tibialis) Seen almost daily from the tower in April and early May but scarce thereafter. Also seen twice from the Serra.

Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) Common.

Thrush-like Wren (Campylorhynchus turdinus) Common around Alta Floresta, uncommon at Cristalino.

Black-capped Donacobius (Donacobius atricapillus) Common around Lagoa Cigana and seen along the Teles Pires Road around the “borrowdykes”.

Tooth-billed Wren (Odontorchilus cinereus) Fairly abundant canopy inhabitant, often with mixed flocks.

Moustached Wren (Thryothorus genibarbis) Common around bamboo.

Buff-breasted Wren (Thryothorus leucotis) Fairly common along the River and at the Island.

House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) Common around Alta Floresta and in secondary habitats such as the Island.

Southern Nightingale-Wren (Microcerculus marginatus) Common but rather unobtrusive, one seen foraging on the ground under an understory mixed flock at the Borboletas Trail.

Musician Wren (Cyphorhinus aradus) Fairly common, particularly around Limão.

Long-billed Gnatwren (Ramphocaenus melanurus) Common member of understory flocks, a pair recorded foraging on the ground with a pair of Myrmotherula hauxwelli on the Rochas trail during heavy rain on the 5 May. This species is usually found between two and ten metres up (Hilty 2003).

Guianan Gnatcatcher (Polioptila guianensis) One record of this little-known species (Hilty 2003) - one on the 26 May with a mixed species canopy/subcanopy flock on the Castanheira Trail foraging on the outermost branches of the canopy.

Lawrence's Thrush (Turdus lawrencii) One was heard irregularly at the Saliero.

Cocoa Thrush (Turdus fumigatus) Fairly common, at least two pairs on the Taboca and one on the Rochas and Borboletas. There still exists some debate as to whether it is T. fumigatus or T. hauxwelli that occurs at Cristalino but my personal opinion was that the birds I saw more closely resembled T. fumigatus.

White-necked Thrush (Turdus albicollis) One by the Saliero on the 3 June was probably attending a small Eciton swarm.

[mockingbird sp. (Mimus sp.) I recorded a mockingbird from the rear-window of the hotel Landrover on the 19 April on the outskirts of Alta Floresta, this genus is unrecorded from the region, but with increasing deforestation Mimus saturninus should be expected to colonise.]

Rufous-browed Peppershrike (Cyclarhis gujanensis) Common on the Island but fairly scarce along the Cristalino.

Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo (Smaragdolanius leucotis) Scarce, seen from the Tower, the Figueira and Rochas Trails and at the Hotel.

Chivi Vireo (Vireo chivi) Most reliable on the Serra but also seen at the Hotel and on the Borboletas Trail.

Gray-chested Greenlet (Hylophilus semicinereus) Common by the River, often in mixed flocks.

Dusky-capped Greenlet (Hylophilus hypoxanthus) Seen on three occasions with canopy mixed flocks, probably overlooked.

Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Hylophilus ochraceiceps) Only seen once for sure with an understory mixed flock on the Amazon Kawall Trail in the 24 May but probably glimpsed on several other occasions.

Rose-breasted Chat (Granatellus pelzeni) Common in and around bamboo patches.

Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) Common on the Serra and on the Island but scarce in terra firme forest.

Red-billed Pied-Tanager (Lamprospiza melanoleuca) Fairly common, usually in flocks independent of other species.

Magpie Tanager (Cissopis leveriana) Common around Alta Floresta, not recorded at CJL.

[Guira Tanager (Hemithraupis guira) A probable pair of this potentially new species to Alta Floresta seen briefly in flight with AW on the Orchidaiea Trail on the 31 May.]

Yellow-backed Tanager (Hemithraupis flavicollis) Uncommon with canopy mixed flocks.

White-winged Shrike-Tanager (Lanio versicolor) Fairly common with canopy mixed flocks.

Flame-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus cristatus) Fairly common with canopy mixed flocks.

White-shouldered Tanager (Tachyphonus luctuosus) Common, often found with canopy and understory mixed flocks.

White-lined Tanager (Tachyphonus rufus) A male seen behind the hotel on the 12 May.

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager (Habia rubica) One, possibly two pairs located on the Caja/Caja Extension and a pair seen on the Castanheira with a mixed flock on the 10 June.

Silver-beaked Tanager (Ramphocelus carbo) Common.

Blue-gray Tanager (Thraupis episcopus) Common around Alta Floresta but along the Cristalino only seen regularly at Limão.

Palm Tanager (Thraupis palmarum) Common.

Purple-throated Euphonia (Euphonia chlorotica) Uncommon, seen on the island and probably from the Saliero.

White-lored Euphonia (Euphonia chrysopasta) Common.

Orange-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster) A pair seen at Limão on the 25 May although I found this species very hard to separate from E. chlorotica.

Rufous-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia rufiventris) Common.

Turquoise Tanager (Tangara mexicana) Common around Alta Floresta.

Paradise Tanager (Tangara chilensis) Seemingly uncommon and invariably with mixed tanager flocks which were themselves scarce along the Cristalino.

Green-and-Gold Tanager (Tangara schrankii) Fairly common with canopy mixed flocks.

Spotted Tanager (Tangara punctata) A pair of this enigmatic species seen accompanying a mixed flock on the summit of the Serra Trail on the 15 May.

Bay-headed Tanager (Tangara gyrola) Common, often with mixed flocks.

Blue-necked Tanager (Tangara cyanicollis) One seen along the Teles Pires Road on the 29 April.

Masked Tanager (Tangara nigrocincta) Uncommon, seen twice on the summit of the Serra Trail and twice at Limão.

Opal-rumped Tanager (Tangara velia) Uncommon, see comments under T. chilensis.

Black-faced Dacnis (Dacnis lineata) Common.

Yellow-bellied Dacnis (Dacnis flaviventer) Fairly common along the river.

Blue Dacnis (Dacnis cayana) Fairly common.

Green Honeycreeper (Chlorophanes spiza) Fairly common. Dacnises and honeycreepers in general were highly sporadic in their appearances and were most reliable on the Serra Trail.

Short-billed Honeycreeper (Cyanerpes nitidus) A pair frequented a fruiting tree by the bungalows in early April and a pair was seen with a mixed flock at Limão on the 14 June.

Purple Honeycreeper (Cyanerpes caeruleus) Fairly common, see remarks under Chlorophanes spiza.

Chestnut-vented Conebill (Conirostrum speciosum) A pair seen accompanying a mixed flock at the summit of the Serra Trail on the 15 May and a family party of two adults and three juveniles at the same place but independently of a mixed flock on the 4 June.

Swallow Tanager (Tersina viridis) Unrecorded before the 4 May and then only recorded on seven subsequent dates, usually from the river in flocks of up to five individuals often at fruiting trees.

Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) Common in the town of Alta Floresta.

Blue-black Grassquit (Volatinia jacarina) Common at Limão and around Alta Floresta.

Lined Seedeater (Sporophila lineola) Three females at Limão on the 25 May and presumably the same three and a male on the 14 June.

Lesser Seed-Finch (Oryzoborus angolensis) One singing at Limão on the 27 April.

Red-capped Cardinal (Paroaria gularis) Common along the river and on the Island.

Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak (Parkerthraustes humeralis) Seen on most visits to the tower, both with and independently of mixed flocks, seen carrying nesting material in early May.

Slate-coloured Grosbeak (Pitylus grossus) Fairly common, often in bamboo.

Grayish Saltator (Saltator caerulescens) One with a mixed flock on the Island on the 8 May.

Blue-backed Grosbeak (Passerina cyanoides) Heard once at Limão and once at the Saliero.

Crested Oropendola (Psarocolius decumanus) Common.

Amazonian Oropendola (Gymnostinops bifasciatus) Common, large numbers passed west over the lodge every evening presumably heading to a communal roost.

Yellow-rumped Cacique (Cacicus cela) Common.

Red-rumped Cacique (Cacicus haemorrhous) Fairly common around Cristalino and in Alta Floresta in April, but no sightings after mid May.

[Solitary Black Cacique (Cacicus solitarius) What was almost certainly this species was glimpsed from the river close to Limão on the 12 April.]

Epaulet Oriole (Icterius cayanensis) Common around Alta Floresta, seen on 8 dates around Cristalino.

Giant Cowbird (Scaphidura oryzivora) Common around Alta Floresta, also seen at Limão, on the Island and from the tower.

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) Fairly common in Alta Floresta.

Other observers

AG – Arthur Grosset, AK – Alex Kirschel, AW – Andrew Whittaker, JM – Jeremy Minns, RB – Rasmus Boegh,


First and foremost I would like to thank Vitória da Riva Carvalho for offering me the position and for all her help (along with Zuleica Melo) throughout my stay at CJL. The staff at CJL – particularly Nair, George and Francisco and at the Hotel Floresta Amazônica for their kindness and support. I'm particularly indebted for the council of Andrew Whittaker who put up with a considerable inquisition and others who plied me with ornithological information including Braulio Carlos, Silvio Marchini, Hank Brodkin, Rasmus Boegh, Aaron Lang, Carlos Peres, Jeremy Minns, Arthur Grosset, Daniel Davison, Alex Kirschel and Douglas Trent. Particular thanks also to those that helped me with logistics, finance or for miscellaneous reasons including: Raul Filho, Glyn & Sylvia Dawson, Wanda Dameron, Priscilla Brodkin, Kim Garwood and Evan Bowen-Jones.


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Cristalino Jungle Lodge Checklists

Cristalino Lodge International Guide Schedules

Cristalino Jungle Lodge & Alta Floresta Trip Report by Frank Lambert & Joe Tobias, May-June 2003 & April-June 2004.

Jaguar relaxing on the bank of the Rio Cristalino, August 1998 and Cristalino Conservation Links.

Copyright © 1992-2012 John Wall