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BRAZIL BIRDING TRIP REPORT

22 June - 21 July 2000

by Samuel Hansson

Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais and the Pantanal, Mato Grosso

Travelers: Mathias Bergström, Samuel Hansson, Bengt Larsson and Lars Petersson, Sweden.

[Comments in italics by John Wall.]

Introduction

In December 1999, barely home from a journey to Australia, Singapore and India, I started to make plans for my next birding trip. One of my most desirable destinations was southeastern Brazil, a must for the serious global birder. Mathias Bergström quickly got on the hook, and a couple of months later we had filled our empty spaces with Lars Petersson and Bengt Larsson.

Getting information on birding sites in southeastern Brazil was hard work, but Lars finally made a break-through and got some neat travel reports and contacts. We ended up using the excellent, Rio de Janeiro-based bird watching guide Ricardo Parrini for our first week, and Ana Cristina Venturini of Originalis Natura for a two day Cherry-throated Tanager stake-out after that. The following two weeks we were on our own. Our fourth and last week was spent in the Chapada dos Guimarães area and the Pantanal of Mato Grosso. We had arranged a rental car with Avis, but luckily found ourselves choosing the local ecotourism company Natureco instead. We didn't get any help to find the birds, but they made a good job with practical arrangements and all that. Considering that we visited Brazil during the peak of the austral winter, the 541 species of birds seen (or heard) on the trip must be considered a very reasonable total.

Though you miss some birds in the winter, a bonus in my opinion was the sunny and rather cool (sometimes even cold) weather. The maximum temperature was mostly around 20-22 C, with higher temperatures in the coastal lowlands and in Mato Grosso, and lower temperatures in the higher mountains. Some in our group weren't prepared for dawn temperatures of only a few degrees above zero, so don't forget to bring warm clothes including long underwear (if camping) and gloves. A minus, which can possibly be connected with the winter, was the sometimes very windy weather.

Brazil is wealthy compared to many other Latin American countries, though the wealth of course is very unevenly distributed. However (surprisingly) we didn't see much of the poverty at all. The infrastructure is often very good, and though many people are forced to a simple way of living it didn't look all that bad. To our surprise gasoline prices were expensive, between 1.20-1.50 reales ($0.65-0.85)/ liter. Hotels can be reasonably cheap. A simple 2-4-bed room doesn't have to cost more than $12. In tourist areas, however, prices of the cheapest rooms available can be much higher. Look around for the cheaper hotel and/or try negotiation. In the Pantanal, expect to pay $40/day for accommodation and full meals. To arrange the Pantanal visit through a local tourist company is a good suggestion; not only is it comfortable not having to worry about practical matters, you also make a good support to the local economy.

Finally, good luck to everyone who's going to Brazil in search of its many endemic and rare birds. Go now, before its too late!

Samuel Hansson, Frödingshöjd 36, 656 37 Karlstad, Sweden.
E-mail: samuelhansson@hotmail.com

Mathias Bergström, Finntorpägen 9 8 tr, 131 36 Nacka, Sweden.
E-mail: mathias.b@telia.com

Lars Petersson, Ringvägen 14, 331 43 Värnamo, Sweden
E-mail: lars.p@telia.com

Summary of the Journey

21/6 Departure from Sweden in afternoon.

22/6 Arrives at Rio de Janeiro in morning. Birding at Serra dos Orgãos NP (mid-elevations) from 10.30.

23/6 Serra dos Orgãos, high elevations.

24/6 Serra dos Orgãos, low elevations. Transport to Carmo in late afternoon,

25/6 Fazenda São José, Carmo until 11.00. Long drive to Linhares.

26/6 Sooretama

27/6 Sooretama

28/6 Sooretama (morning). Transport to Vitória and Pindobas IV.

29/6 Pindobas IV

30/6 Pindobas IV. To Santa Teresa and the Museu de Ruschi.

1/7 Nova Lomardia

2/7 Nova Lombardia (morning). Long drive to Barão de Cocais.

3/7 Caraça. To Serra do Cipó.

4/7 Serra do Cipó (morning). Long drive to São Roque de Minas.

5/7 Serra da Canastra NP, northern part: Retiro das Pedras, above Casca d'Anta.

6/7 Serra da Canastra, northern part (morning), southern part below Casca d'Anta (afternoon).

7/7 Serra da Canastra (morning). Long drive to Itamonte, north of Itatiaia NP.

8/7 Itatiaia NP: Agulhas Negras Road.

9/7 Itatiaia: Três Picos Trail (morning), Jeep Trail (afternoon).

10/7 Itatiaia: Três Picos Trail, Maromba Trail, Hotel Simon.

11/7 To Perequê, birding 9-11.30. To Araruama.

12/7 Macambaba Road, Arraial do Cabo. To Rio de Janeiro.

13/7 Rio de Janeiro.

14/7 Flight to Cuiabá via Brasília. To Chapada dos Guimarães in the evening.

15/7 Chapada dos Guimarães.

16/7 Chapada dos Guimarães. To Cuiabá in the evening.

17/7 To Pantanal. Arrives at Rio Clarinho Lodge at noon.

18/7 Transpantaneira, ending up at Pousada Pantaneiro in late afternoon.

19/7 Transpantaneira. Another night at Pousada Pantaneiro.

20/7 Transpantaneira. Arrives at Pouso Alegre by noon.

21/7 Transpantaneira (morning). To Cuiabá. Flight to São Paulo via Campo Grande.

Flight to Frankfurt leaves near midnight.

22/7 Finally arrives in Gothenburg at 23.30, Mathias much earlier in Stockholm.

Site descriptions

by Lars Petersson

As few or no notes on site descriptions were taken during our trip, this section of the report shall only be treated as personal comments on the trip. Use others reports in conjunction, e.g. the reports mentioned above. It's always advisable to check the Worldtwitch website as new reports keep coming: worldtwitch.com

Finding our way around in south-east Brazil was not such a challenge as we once thought, before we started to plan the trip. The few good trip reports that we came across helped us a lot in chosing the sites that we were to visit. A report by Mike Hunter with many good hints and site descriptions (although no maps) was found on Worldtwitch.  You may try to contact him at mikehunter@tinyonline.co.uk. We borrow a few good things from his report. A report by Colin Bushell has good detailed maps on most sites that we visited. His report can be bought at NHBS. Where to watch birds in South America (1994) by Nigel Wheatley also has adequate maps and served as an inspiration initially. Birding Brazil (1993) by Bruce C. Forrester has systematic lists and maps to virtually all sites. However, both these publications should be used together with recent trip reports since they are almost ten years old and some facts may be out of date. Addresses to the different IBAMA offices are found at: www.ibama.gov.br

Ricardo Parrini

Ricardo Parrini as an excellent birdwatching guide. We were very satisfied with his guiding. His strongest side is his fundamental knowledge in bird vocalizations. He's also very patient and work really hard to get the targets. At present he charges $100/day+ accommodation and food. Book well in advance, because he's busy with guiding all over Brazil for periods. You can get in contact with Ricardo at rparrini@hotmail.com

Serra dos Órgãos (Rio de Janeiro)

The entrance to this National Park is only about two hours from the Rio de Janeiro airport and is readily found on your left when you enter the town of Teresópolis. Pay the fee at the gate, and it is also advisable to book accommodation at the hostel or the campground inside, since the gate normally not opens before 8 am. [JW: If you stay in the park, you can come and go at all hours, but if you stay outside you can't get in until 8 am. However, once in, there is no obligation to leave. Thus, I camped one night at the (waterless) campsite in the middle of Grey-winged Cotinga country.] To get one of the star birds here, the Grey-winged Cotinga, you will probably have to start climbing the trail very early in the morning, before first light. Although we started at about 4.30 am, we didn't get up to the best places until noon. [If you only bird very casually on the way up and move fast, it takes about 2 hours from the car park to the lower limit of Grey-winged Cotinga.] The trail leads off from the parking place at the end of the narrow, paved road, and after several hours, birding your way up, you will reach a small campsite. This should be a good place for the Grey-winged. [Only if one flies over. While you can hear them from the campsite, the best way to see one is to find a channel through the trailside vegetation to a calling bird. It may also be possible to call one in with playback, which works on the other Tijuca, but the tapes I made of Grey-winged weren't loud enough to get them to move.] The trail continues up to the left, and after about 30-45 minutes you may hear a small spring pouring on your left. Close to here, we heard our first Cotinga. A further 15 minutes up, we heard a second individual. Although we tried to play the birds in, none showed up. [I think it would be more likely to move within its calling tree in response to playback than to fly in.] They were also difficult to tape, since they only sang once every 15 minutes or so. It is also interesting that up here, we heard no Black-and-golds. They were way down below. We spent almost all the time at Serra dos Órgãos along this trail, and felt that the lower parts of the park could be covered up for at other sites.

Fazenda São José (Rio de Janeiro)

One of the best place to see Three-toed Jacamar. As one enter the town of Carmo from the south, about four hours north of Rio de Janeiro City, there is a turn-off to the left at the first petrol station. We are not sure of how many kms it was to the forest patches which holds the Jacamar, perhaps ten. However, between the two patches, there is a farm on the right with a roadside pond, where we in turn had Band-tailed Horneros! We eventually found the Jacamars at the second patch, after intense play-backing. Also had good birds here like Long-billed Wren, Blue-winged Macaw and Yellow-eared Woodpecker. The rare Rio de Janeiro Antbird is also known from here.

Sooretama (Espírito Santo)

This Biological Reserve is situated along the BR 101, about 140 kms north of Vitória. You must have a permit from IBAMA to enter the reserve, but then you may also stay for free at the headquarters. [Excellent new cabin with kitchen, satellite TV, outdoor laundry tubs, and about 8 beds. And free!] This was the major lowland site we visited in southeast Brazil. Three highly desired species that occurs here, the Red-billed Curassow and the Banded [probably most likely to be seen at Monte Pascoal, BA, but rare everywhere] and White-winged Cotingas, were unfortunately dipped by us. The Curassow may be easier at Linhares and the two Cotingas are more readily seen at Porto Seguro further north [well, White-winged, at least].

We birded along three stretches of tracks and dirt roads in the forest. First, there is a road that leads off from the gate at the BR101 and follows the northern border to the west. This dirt road of several kms. offer a little more of open habitat, so it is good to start here early when it's still too dark inside the forest. Almost opposite the gate, a dirt road goes east. We birded here for a couple of hours one afternoon, but didn't have many birds. The track that is normally regarded as the best, however, is the Estrada Quiranão. Although birding here is often slower than in more open habitat, patience and good knowledge in calls and playback-technique pays off well. The large clearing, that is sometimes mentioned in previous reports, was nearly overgrown on our visit. [In 1996, I saw Red-billed Curassow early in the morning on the main road about 20 m south of the intersection with Estrada Quiranão. My mates had seen a pair the day before feeding under the fruiting trees along the first stretch of Estrada Quiranão.]

Fazenda Pindobas IV (Espírito Santo)

The only site in the world where one at present can see the very smart and critically endangered Cherry-throated Tanager. No more than 10 or 11 individuals survives in the small remnant patches of Atlantic forest. Pindobas IV is situated about 140 kms west of Vitória along the BR 262. The only way to see this bird is to make an arrangement through Originalis Natura, run by Ana Cristina Venturini at acvprp@zaz.com.br. She will arrange with guiding (US$ 150 day/group) and cheap but basic accommodation. We were told that all visitors so far have seen the tanagers if at least two days are spent. A lot of other good birds are also present, e.g. a good population of Dusky-legged Guan, Cinnamon-vented Piha, Spotted Bamboowren, Brown Tanager and a possible new species of Phylloscartes tyrannulet. The time spent here, once you have seen the Tanager, is not a waste of time.

Nova Lombardia (Espírito Santo)

Also known as Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve. This site is well documented in previous reports and bird finding guides. To visit, you must show the warden a permit from IBAMA. However, it seems that it is not asked for, unless you look up the warden by yourself! [In 1996, we looked for the warden (who everyone calls "Gordo" for obvious reasons) from time to time but couldn't find him, but just as we were preparing to leave, he found us, and chewed me out for allegedly not getting permission (to bird along a public road).] One of the big events here is the wide range of hummingbird species that comes to feed on the feeders, both at Museu de Ruschi in the town of Santa Teresa and at the warden's house inside the reserve itself. The dirt road that traverse the reserve eventually diverse, and we spent most time on the right hand road since the forest looked better here. Walking this stretch several times gave a lot of good birds, e.g. Blue-bellied Parrot, Black Hawk-Eagle, Salvadori's Antwren, Wied's Tyrant-Manakin, Rufous-brown Solitaire, Russet-winged Spadebill and pre-dawn Brazilian Pygmy-Owl. Try the area just before the fork for Long-tailed Potoo.

Caraça (Minas Gerais)

This national park with a beautifully placed monastery offers your best chance to see the Serra Antwren. We found them quite readily along the Cascatinha Trail that leads off from the parking area just below the monastery. The scrubby hillside behind the buildings offers good a chance to see Hyacinth Visorbearer, although we didn't get any. [I saw Hyacinth Visorbearer (different subspecies than at Cipó) at the chapel ruins upslope from the monastery. Follow the distant voice of Giant Antshrike until the ruins come into view.] The Tanque Grande Trail, a sidetrack leading off from the road on your right a bit before you reach the monastery, is more wooded than the other trails. We had some amazing flocks here, one which included a Red-ruffed Fruitcrow and 14 Swallow-tailed Cotingas! We tried to playback White-breasted Tapaculo into view from a prerecorded tape, and eventually one bird replied. The little creature wasn't in the mood to show up in full view, though.

Serra do Cipó (Minas Gerais)

This is the most well known site to see the Hyacinth Visorbearer and the restricted-ranged Cipó Canastero. Stay at Chapéu de Sol. Park the car as you have reached the summit, and walk the hills up on your right. Grey-backed Tachuri as well as Hyacinth Visorbearers were found almost immediately at the largest clump of bushes in the area. Then we kept strolling up the hills, keeping right and aiming for some rocky outcrops, and eventually at least one pair of Canasteros were encountered. Once down on the road again, we walked a few hundred meters towards the Chapéu de Sol. Roadside birding here gave Cinereous Warbling-Finch and Pale-throated Serra-Finch. Fields below the Chapéu de Sol held Campo Flickers and Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl in the hillside forest-patch. One female Horned Sungem was seen briefly by one of us. Beyond the summit there is more excellent cerrado habitat. Species to look for are i.e. White-naped Jay, Checkered Woodpecker, Blue Finch, Collared Crescentchest and Giant Snipe.

Serra da Canastra (Minas Gerais)

Well-covered site and the last stronghold for the Brazilian Merganser, which makes up for the usually long drive. While you explore the northern part of this National Park, stay at Hotel Favia in the lower end of the small town of São Roque de Minas. Here you will get cheap accommodation and excellent meals, and there might be people around who know what is going on in the park birdwise. To get to the park, go to the top of the town and turn right. A miserable dust road takes you up to the gate, which opens at 8.00 am. Have your permit ready from IBAMA if visiting during the winter (their summer). To get to what seems to be the most reliable site for the Merganser, keep driving almost to the turn-off for Casca d'Anta. Some distance before that intersection, turn right, and after 10 kms turn left to Retiro das Pedras. Scan the narrow stream at the buildings, and try on several places upstream. Also try above and below the waterfall Casca d'Anta itself.

In general, there are few stake-outs in the park. Try every patch of gallery forest and walk the cerrado for the specialities. While exploring the southern part, we camped below the waterfall. The forest here is a bit different from the forest above, and thus other species were to be seen.

Stripe-breasted Starthroats can be found in the town of Vargem Bonita en route to the southern entrance of the national park. Drive straight through the town until you reach a small plaza with a restaurant called Ze Capucho. Follow the street on the right downhill and stop by the house with the number 133. Look for feeders in the garden, otherwise look in the surroundings. It appears to be a very good spot for the species.

Itatiaia (Rio de Janeiro / Minas Gerais)

The crown jewel of all National Parks in SE Brazil, and thus well documented. We started with the higher parts. As we arrived from the north, we stayed the night before in the town of Itamonte. From here it was only some 15 minutes to the signed turn-off to the Agulhas Negras Road. The first part, and especially around the first "bridge", has good forest. E.g. Black-capped Piprites and Large-tailed Antshrike are known from here. Farther up along the road, as the forest ends, the Itatiaia Spinetail seems to get increasingly common.

For the lower parts, we stayed at Itatiaia Park Hotel (Hotel Tyll) in the town of Itatiaia. Originally, we planned to stay at Pousada Elefante inside the park, but it eventually turned out that it was closed, permanently. All other options in the park were considered too expensive. Note, that the entrance may not be open before 8.00 am. [I slept in the car at the waterfall, and found that there is nobody on duty at night or in early morning. So you probably won't be barred from entering if you arrive before the guards go on duty.] Read the diary to see how we managed. Of the two main trails, we concentrated on the Três Picos Trail as it is considered best for bamboo specialities. We tried the Jeep Trail once which was partly overgrown, and we did not have many birds. The Três Picos Trail, which starts close to Hotel Simon, has not many markings. One, however, is a stone bench half way up. From here we heard Slaty Bristlefront. Soon after the bench we found e.g. Large-headed Flatbill and Bertoni's Antbird. Try also the grounds around the Hotels Ypê and Simon. They have feeders which attracts e.g. Saffron Toucanet. Swallow-tailed Cotinga has bred at Ypê [and Simon, where I saw it]. The short Maromba Trail, which descends from Hotel Simon, may offer some variation. We had Uniform Finch in the bamboo about 100 meters above the end of the trail. [At least four were visiting Harold Simon's elaborate bird table next to the Hotel Simon in August 1997. Martin Reid had even more at the bird table in 1998.]

Perequê (Rio de Janeiro)

Southwest of Rio. Key site for Black-hooded Antwren, which we had no problem with. Also had Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant, São Paulo Tyrannulet and Bellbird here, although our visit only lasted for a couple of hours. Other possibilities includes Buff-throated Purpletuft, so a visit here is strongly recommended, as it's only three hours from Itatiaia and three and a half from Rio International airport.

Directions (as of Mike Hunter): Turn inland off the BR-101 into the town of Perequê. Drive up the main street til you reach the end of asphalt (1.4 km) and turn right. Continue for several blocks and turn left immediately after a football pitch on the left (1 km). Drive along the dirt road for 7 kms and after the fourth "bridge" there is an open shed on the right with a dirt track on the left in front of it. The site is 200 meters further along the main road through a barbed wire gate on the right. Follow this track through the remaining forest.

Macambaba road (Rio de Janeiro)

This is the best site in the world for the Restinga Antwren, situated about 2 hours east of Rio, near Araruama. Drive east on the sandy road between Praia Seca and Arraial do Cabo. One good site is 7 kilometers beyond Praia Seca (from the point where the pavement ends). We had them almost as we stepped out of the car. Additional information can be found in Cotinga 5.

Arraial do Cabo (Rio de Janeiro)

A couple of hours east of Rio. From Cabo Frio, head south to Arraial do Cabo. Keep to the right in town, and look for the obvious gate from which the winding road ascend towards good viewpoints for seabirds. Around and behind the small islets we had plenty of Yellow-nosed Albatrosses, a few Manx Shearwaters, Cayenne and South American Terns, Pomarine Jeagers etc. However, if you travel without a telescope, going here is a waste of time since distances to most birds were considerable.

Chapada dos Guimarães (Mato Grosso)

Campo situated on Brazil's central plateau and offers a different avifauna to the Pantanal. However, we had very cold and windy conditions on our visit and were quite disappointed with the birdwatching in general. [Same here!] Others have had better luck, though, with e.g. Harpy Eagle and White-naped Jay along the road to the radar station. The forest along this paved side road looked good, but was almost empty on birds while we were there. We found better activity a little bit farther towards Chapada at Portão da Fé. Better looking forest still, is found at one of the main tourist attractions in the area, the waterfall Véu de Noiva. The canyon here held e.g. Red-and-green Macaws and Biscutate Swifts, although no Great Dusky dito. There is a trail down to the bottom of the waterfall, which is well worth exploring. We cannot give much information on where to find the "heavy" cerrado species, as we failed to find most of them ourselves.

Transpantaneira (Mato Grosso)

One of the big events on the trip was to see the Pantanal and the overwhelming wildlife which is associated with the area. And indeed, we were not disappointed. Apart from quite good numbers of Hyacinth Macaw, the most desired species, we also saw Ocelot, Giant Anteater, Tamandua, Giant Otter, Anaconda and of course plenty of Capybaras and Caymans. Originally, we planned to rent a car from Avis and find our own way around. However, as we arrived to Cuiabá there was no sign of Avis or anyone from the office as we had expected. [I used Localiza, who supplied a nearly new Fiat Tempra.] But so was Munir from the travel agency Natureco. After a lot of negotiation we agreed on an itinerary for both Chapada and Transpantaneira, and we found ourselves with a deal, all included, not much more expensive than if we had done the itinerary by ourselves. Take a look at Natureco's website.

The first night was spent at Pousada Rio Clarinho, well signposted and a couple of kms east from the Transpantaneira. This is still some distance north of Pixaim. The grounds around the fazenda offered excellent birdwatching and a canoe ride on the river should not be missed. Highlights included Sungrebes, Boat-billed Heron, both Piping-Guans, lots of Sunbitterns and Giant Otters plus much more.

The second and third nights were spent at Pousada Pantaneira, a very basic lodge situated some 40 kms north of Porto Jofre and just north of the track marked as "Track leading to excellent forest" in Forrester. The birdwatching in this area is mainly done on this dusty track which leads off westwards. After about twenty minutes (by car) one will reach another farm with an extensive area of palms on the right. This is the best place to see Hyacinth Macaws. We had at least 30 coming in to roost just before sunset. If one goes south from Pousada Pantaneira one will soon reach the extensive wetlands of Campo Jofre, which is of course good for wetland birds, but few species will be new here and farther south. In mornings, some Hyacinth Macaws usually come to feed on the palms at Pousada Pantaneira.

The fourth and last night in the Pantanal was spent at Pousada Alegre, which is west of the Transpantaneira and a bit north of our first lodge at Rio Clarinho. On our visit, there was no sign to this fazenda and no buildings were visible from the road. Thus, it might be a bit tricky to find without any further information. Every night, flocks of Hyacinth Macaws comes to roost at the fazenda, and occasionally other species of Macaws can be seen here. Horseback riding is a main feature, so many tourists comes here. Riding through the open landscape became an unforgettable memory and a perfect ending of our trip, as we came very close to huge flocks of e.g. various species of ibis and stork. As we eventually returned towards Cuiabá, we once again stopped by the gate which marks the start to the Transpantaneira. [We had a flock of Long-tailed Ground-Doves on the fence just beyond the gate in 1998.] The roadside wet areas here is thronging with birds.

It would be advisable to make reservations if one intend to stay at any of the lodges mentioned above. This can be arranged through Natureco, and there's also a lot of information about other ecotourism companies etc. in the Lonely Planet guide. [In addition, Porto Jofre Pantanal, the hotel at the end of the Transpantaneira, is a great place to stay. There should be no need for reservations, as few tourists get that far.]

Pantanal Bird Club has a web site well worth a check: www.bsc-eoc.org

Bird song recordings from the trip

As we planned the trip, we wanted to prepare ourselves with sound-recordings of Brazilian birds. Some CDs were on the market, but all of them were expensive and out of stock at the dealers. However, I brought my own equipment and made recordings during the trip of some 101 species including 27 Brazilian endemics. The result, although not professional, proved valid for playback and can be useful to others in their preparations. Therefore, I offer my recordings on cassette to future travelers. The price will be US$ 15 or £ 10 and should be sent to this adress:

Lars Pettersson
Ringvägen 14
331 43 Värnamo
SWEDEN

Contents of the tape:

Serra dos Orgãos

Star-throated Antwren
Swallow-tailed Manakin
Hooded Berryeater
Olivaceous Woodcreeper
Rufous-breasted Leaftosser
White-browed Woodpecker
Rufous-tailed Antbird
Mouse-colored Tapaculo
Brazilian Ruby
Barred Forest-Falcon
Rufous-backed Antvireo
Rufous-tailed Antthrush
White-rimmed Warbler
Serra do Mar Tyrannulet
Black-and-gold Cotinga
Variable Antshrike
Giant Antshrike
Black-billed Scythebill
Eye-ringed Tody-Tyrant

Fazenda São José

Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher
Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch
Blue-winged Macaw
Red-legged Seriema
Three-toed Jacamar
Chestnut-backed Antshrike
Lemon-chested Greenlet

Sooretama

Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike
Buff-throated Saltator
White-lored Tyrannulet
Fuscous Flycatcher
Yellow-breasted Flycatcher
White-bearded Manakin
Rufous-winged Antwren
Greyish Mourner
Yellow-green Grosbeak
Sirystes
Long-billed Gnatwren
Rufous-tailed Jacamar
Three-striped Flycatcher
Black-headed Berryeater
Rufous-capped Antthrush
Red-browed Amazon
Black-capped Becard
Cinereous Antshrike
Maroon-faced Parakeet
Tawny-browed Owl
Striated Softtail
Blue-headed Parrot
Plain-winged Woodcreeper
Black-cheeked Gnateater
Scaled Antbird

Pindobas IV

Cryptic Antthrush
Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant
Ochre-rumped Antbird
White-bibbed Antbird
Cherry-throated Tanager
Greenish Mourner
Dusky-legged Guan
Mouse-colored Tapaculo
Ferruginous Antbird
Ochre-rumped Antbird
Spotted Bamboowren

Nova Lombardia

Bare-throated Bellbird
Rufous-brown Solitaire
Wied's Tyrant-Manakin
White-bibbed Antbird
Russet-winged Spadebill
Black Hawk-Eagle
Plain-winged Woodcreeper
Spot-breasted Antvireo
Short-tailed Antthrush
Barred Forest-Falcon
Collared Forest-Falcon
Black-billed Scythebill

Serra do Cipó

Gray-backed Tachuri

Caraça

Variable Antshrike

Itatiaia

Rufous-tailed Antbird
Serra do Mar Tyrannulet
Sharp-billed Treehunter
Ferruginous Antbird
Large-headed Flatbill
White-throated Spadebill
Golden-crowned Warbler
Rufous-capped Motmot
Bertoni's Antbird
Golden-winged Cacique
White-shouldered White-eye

Perequê

Ferruginous Antbird
Black-hooded Antwren
Scaled Antbird

Macambaba Road

Restinga Antwren

Chapada dos Guimarães

Moustached Wren
Yellow-olive Flycatcher
Rusty-backed Antwren

Transpantaneira

Purplish Jay
Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant
Troupial
Lesser Kiskadee
Great Antshrike
White-lored Spinetail
Barred Antshrike
Large-billed Antwren
Hyacinth Macaw
Flavescent Warbler
Chestnut-bellied Guan
Black-fronted Nunbird
Rusty-margined Flycatcher
Thick-billed Euphonia
House Wren

Diary

21/6 The three of us (at the time) resident in the province of Småland in southern Sweden met at the airport in Jönköping in the afternoon, for our flight to Copenhagen and Rio de Janeiro. Mathias took a plane from Stockholm via Frankfurt, and if everything went as planned we were going to meet in Rio the next morning. Hopefully we would also be greeted by our guide for the first week, Ricardo Parrini.

22/6 The plane was supposed to make a short stop in São Paulo before reaching its final destination Rio de Janeiro, but foggy conditions in São Paulo made up for a switch in our favor. Thus we landed in Rio 1½ hours before schedule, at 05.30. At the luggage claim we instantly met Mathias who had been as early as us for the same reason. A good start. While the other two waited for Ricardo, Mathias and Samuel went to Avis to start the car rental procedures. There we made the somewhat surprising discovery that we were booked on a car in the F-category, but that turned out to be a good thing, because the price tag was much better than in the H-category. With 5 people in the car it would be a little crowded, but only for the first week. Soon we were all gathered, and off we went towards Serra dos Orgãos with Ricardo behind the wheel. Anxious to start the birding, we were a little bit frustrated that we couldn't really start until 10.30, and then we had to wait for Ricardo to get his stuff at his grandfather's place in Teresópolis. Finally by 11.30 we were out on the main trail inside the national park. During our walk in the beautiful forest we of course had many new species. We had excellent observations of skulkers like Star-throated Antwren, Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper and Rufous-breasted Leaftosser, and other nice birds were i.e. 1 male Hooded Berryeater (+many singing), 1 Yellow-browed Woodpecker, 6 White-browed Foliage-gleaners, 3 Rufous-backed Antvireos, 2 Serra do Mar Tyrannulets, 2 Rufous-tailed Antbirds and lots of Brassy-breasted Tanagers. The 3-4 singing Black-and-gold Cotingas could not be located, despite intensive scanning of the canopy. We had to walk more or less in darkness the last half hour before we came back to our car in the evening. We spent our first night camping inside the park, while Ricardo stayed at his grandfather's in the city.

23/6 Today we spent all day on the same trail as yesterday, but climbed high up to an altitude of 1900 meters. Now Ricardo really proved his astonishing ear for bird vocalizations, and he played back several good birds into view. The foremost speciality of this trail, the rare Gray-winged Cotinga, was heard calling a few times in the upper reaches of the elfin forest but could not be lured into view. We didn't see as many new birds during the day as we expected, though we had some great ones: 1 juv. Gray-headed Kite, 1 Barred Forest-Falcon, 6 Plovercrests (including excellent views of a superb male!), 2 Black-billed Scythebills (one of them attacking Ricardo after playback!), 2 Giant Antshrikes, 1 Rufous-tailed Antthrush (close!), 1 Thick-billed Saltator and no less than 3 male Black-and-gold Cotingas finally seen very well. We were quite exhausted when we reached the car in the evening. After dinner - excellent pizza for most of us - we went straight to our tents.

24/6 During the night it started to get windy. The morning birding became very difficult because of the wind and proved more or less fruitless during the first hours. A singing White-bibbed Antbird, our first Golden-chevroned Tanagers, 9 Plain Parakeets, 2 White-throated Wood-creepers and 1 White-throated Hummingbird were some of the few birds we found. By 08.30 we gave up, packed our tents and went to a nearby foothill site called Garrafão. Here too, it was very windy. Nevertheless, we started walking downwards on a steep stone-covered road. The first highlight was to see the very tree where Ricardo rediscovered the Kinglet Calyptura in 1996. Too bad it hasn't been sighted since. [Birding conditions there are extremely difficult - steep slopes, tall trees, and poor visibility.] After a while we reached a gully shaded from the wind, and soon the birds were dropping in. During midday and afternoon we found some excellent birds including 2 Golden-tailed Parrotlets heard [Are you sure it wasn't the other (rarer) Touit?], 1 Yellow-eared Woodpecker, 1 Streak-capped Antwren (+others heard), 1 Saw-billed Hermit heard, 1 Gray-hooded Attila, 1 Eye-ringed Tody-Tyrant, 2 Sharpbills and beautiful Green-headed and Red-necked Tanagers. At 15.30 we left for Teresópolis and after that continued to Carmo to the north, where we checked in at a cheap hotel at dusk. We had a good and robust dinner in the evening at about the only restaurant in town. [The food is amazingly good (and clean) at nondescript little hotels and restaurants throughout Brazil.]

25/6 At dawn we drove out of Carmo to visit the forest patches around the nearby Fazenda São José. The main target species here is the Three-toed Jacamar. It was quite cold and shady in early morning, so we started to look for birds of more open habitats. We had excellent views of 1 Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch, 2 Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatchers, 2 Sooty Grassquits and several Blue-winged Macaws, while listening to the far-carrying voice of 2 Red-legged Seriemas. No Jacamars were to be found at the first forest patch, so we continued to another site a few kilometers ahead. By the roadside there was a small pond where we quickly found 3 Band-tailed Horneros and some other stuff. The second site produced many new species, i.e. 2 Dusky-legged Guans, 1 Green-barred Woodpecker, 2 White-barred Piculets, 1 male Chestnut-backed Antshrike, 1 Yellow-browed Tyrant, 1 Long-billed Wren, 1 Lemon-chested Greenlet, 5 Swallow-Tanagers and 2 Brazilian Tanagers. Three-toed Jacamars were heard once, but it took quite a while before a pair responded well to our playback and finally sat down in a tree right in front of us. Very nice indeed! The time slipped away fast, and we didn't leave the Carmo area until 11.30, leaving less time than expected for our long, long drive to Linhares far to the northeast. Ricardo lived up to his rumor as a coffee addict, as we stayed at several roadside bars during the day. We did very little birding along the way, but stopped for excellent views of the only two Streamer-tailed Tyrants of the trip. The landscape was rather monotonous; rolling hills of grazing land and sun coffee plantations with very little forest left. Despite "formula 1 - driving" by Ricardo we didn't get to Linhares until 22.00 in the evening, but we quickly got rooms at a cheap roadside hotel. A long day...

26/6 This was our first day at Reserva Biológica de Sooretama, north of Linhares. We started the birding in secondary habitat at the edge of the forest and found a very good selection of tyrannids as well as some other cool stuff, including 1 ad. Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle, 2 King Vultures, 6 Red-browed Amazons, several Sooretama Slaty-Antshrikes, 1 male Rufous-winged Antwren, 1 Gray Elaenia, 1 White-lored Tyrannulet, 1 Gray-crowned Flycatcher, 5 Yellow-breasted Flycatchers, 5 Eared Pygmy-Tyrants, 1 Fuscous Flycatcher, 1 male Red-headed Manakin, 6 White-bellied Tanagers and 5 Yellow-green Grosbeaks. Distances were longer than expected, and we ended up driving quite a lot during our stay at Sooretama. Getting food presented a minor problem, but we were able to have lunch and/ or dinner at a nearby roadside restaurant every day. [If time permits, it would be a good idea to stock up at an hipermercado in Vitória en route to Sooretama.] Ricardo was of very good help not only with the birds, but also with the arrangement of our stay at the Sooretama research station. Without him we would have had to stay in Linhares or somewhere else, and indeed we would have seen many fewer birds. We were a bit nervous at times, though, as Ricardo continued his fast driving on the narrow and partly quite rough forest roads. In the evening, when we were installed at the research station, we went for a walk on the famous Estrada Quiranão trail. The best birds encountered were 1 beautiful male Yellow-fronted Woodpecker, 1 male Band-tailed Antwren and 2 Three-striped Flycatchers. Samuel almost stepped on a gigantic, hairy spider, virtually as big as his own hand! A total of 5 species of Tinamou were heard during the day, but no Crax blumenbachii or cotingas. Yet...

27/6 The whole morning was spent at the Estrada Quiranão trail, and the afternoon mainly at the easternmost portion of the reserve. It was slow at many times, but the highlights included 12 Maroon-faced Parakeets, 1 Tawny-browed Owl (spotlighted), 25+ Pauraques, 3 Minute Hermits, 1 White-tailed and 2 Black-throated Trogons, 1 Buff-bellied Puffbird, c. 10 Black-necked Aracaris, 3 Channel-billed Toucans, 1 male Yellow-throated Woodpecker, 2 Pale-browed Treehunters, 6 Plumbeous Antvireos, 3 Band-tailed Antwrens, 1 Rufous-capped Antthrush seen well (and others heard), several Olivaceous Flatbills and 1 male Black-headed Berryeater. The evening's Crax search again proved unsuccessful.

28/6 Our last day at Sooretama and a final try at the Estrada Quiranão trail. We picked up quite a few good species, though we missed out on Crax, cotingas and Blue-throated Parakeet. We'll get them next time... Goodies included 1 Yellow-legged Tinamou seen, 1 Ornate Hawk-Eagle, 1 Hook-billed Kite, 1 Crane Hawk, 2 Robust Woodpeckers, 2 Blond-crested Woodpeckers (fabulous birds!), 4 Striated Softtails, 3 Plain-winged Woodcreepers, 1 male Black-cheeked Gnateater (seen very well!) and 1 Gray-hooded Attila. By 11.30 we were on our way to Vitória. Our first week had already come to an end, a success much thanks to Ricardo. We drove Ricardo to the bus station, where we also had arranged a meeting with Ana Cristina Venturini and her boyfriend Pedro that were going to take us to Pindobas IV, in search of the Cherry-throated Tanager. They showed up soon, with a third companion, Luciano, as a helping hand. We took farewell of Ricardo, and off we went again. Shortly after nightfall we had arrived at Pindobas IV. Exciting!

29/6 To our disappointment it was a very windy morning. Nevertheless we went out very early to get to the most reliable site for the Cherry-throated Tanager, which is also the rediscovery site of February 1998. There were very few birds singing or moving. We tried hard to catch glimpses of Cryptic Antthrushes, which were extremely skulky, and we had some Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrants, otherwise it was very quiet. Then, finally, at about 10.30, a big mixed flock came and gave us work to do. Two Spot-breasted Antvireos, 1 Cinnamon-vented Piha, 3 male Chestnut-bellied Euphonias, 2 Rufous-headed Tanagers and lots of Gilt-edged Tanagers were highlights. We then followed a singing and very hard-spotted Ochre-rumped Antbird for ages, only to find one right in the open a while later... A cooperative and beautiful male White-bibbed Antbird ended our first tanager search. After lunch we went to the second site where Cherry-throated Tanagers have been seen rather regularly. We walked through wonderful ridgetop forest, but not for very long as we soon stepped out into a brand new coffee plantation. Pedro started to walk down the hillside, just to give it a try, and all but Samuel and Luciano followed in his footsteps. A bad choice for the latter, which started to walk down first when they got the message by radio that a Sirystes was being heard down there. Soon Samuel and Luciano were flying over the rows of tiny coffee trees - 2 Cherry-throated Tanagers had been spotted! After a brief disappearance the tanagers came back and, luckily, everyone got to see these beautiful and extremely rare birds under good conditions. This was a really big event – we had just seen a species with only 11 individuals known to exists in the whole world, and we were the first Swedes ever to see it. Unforgettable! We tried to see some other birds after this, but it really didn't feel all that important...

30/6 With the tanagers secured, we had half a day more to look for other species of the Pindobas area. It turned out to be a good morning, with rather high activity in the forest. Spotted Bamboowren was the target species, and after some hard work everyone got to see it more or less well, with yet another bird singing. Other good birds included 2 White-collared Foliage-gleaners, 1 male Tufted Antshrike, 4 Ferruginous Antbirds, 1 singing Variegated Antpitta, 1 Shear-tailed Gray Tyrant, 3 female Pin-tailed Manakins, 6 Sharpbills, 1 Cinnamon-vented Piha and 2 Phylloscartes tyrannulets possibly representing a new species very similar to Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet. We also had 2 Buffy-headed Marmosets, a rare and odd-looking little monkey. At 11.30 we left Pindobas to go back the same way as we had come two days before, to get to the small town Santa Teresa north of Vitória. We said farewell to our Brazilian friends near Vitória. From now we were on our own. In Santa Teresa we secured two rooms at a simple hotel before going to the Museu de Ruschi. We found the place first after some circling around town, caused by mysterious signs. Here we spent 90 wonderful minutes with perhaps a hundred hummingbirds of an incredible 14 species. The Frilled Coquette males were just amazing! Other great hummers to watch were Swallow-tailed Hummingbird, Violet-capped Wood-nymph, Planalto Hermit, Black Jacobin, White-vented Violetear, White-throated Hummingbird and Amethyst Woodstar. Simply wonderful!

1/7 Today we were going to visit the famous reserve Nova Lombardia near Santa Teresa. Already at our first stop we heard a calling Bare-throated Bellbird, which felt like a big relief – we didn't want to miss that species. During the day we would see but mostly hear up to 10 individuals of these fascinating birds; as a matter of fact we were only able to locate one singing (adult) male. This was great birding. Among the many excellent birds seen can be mentioned 1 Black Hawk-Eagle, 2 Slaty-breasted Wood-Rails, 1 Saw-billed Hermit, 4 Frilled Coquettes, 1 Saffron Toucanet, 2 (+4 heard) Spot-billed Toucanets, 1 Yellow-eared and 1 Yellow-throated Woodpecker, 4 Ochre-breasted and 2 White-eyed Foliage-gleaners, lots of Spot-breasted Antvireos and White-bibbed Antbirds (mostly heard), 2 Salvadori's Antwrens, singing Short-tailed and Cryptic Antthrushes, 1 Rough-legged Tyrannulet, 2 Oustalet's Tyrannulets, 1 Russet-winged Spadebill, 4 Wied's Tyrant-Manakins, 1 male Pin-tailed Manakin, 6 Sharpbills and 1 Rufous-brown Solitaire. The highlight among the mammals was undoubtedly a very good-looking geoffroyi Tufted-ear Marmoset. Samuel had a bad stomach since a couple of days but managed OK. Lars did worse and puked in the afternoon; he felt much better after that, though. Otherwise this was a very memorable day!

2/7 We got up earlier this morning to listen for nightbirds at Nova Lombardia, and did pretty well with 2 Brazilian Pygmy-Owls, 1 Mottled Owl and 2-3 Tawny-browed Owls heard. Otherwise this morning was a silent one. The great surprise was the 2 Blue-bellied Parrots found perched inside the forest. Unfortunately Mathias wasn't able to find the birds before they took off, but the rest of us got a decent view of these rare birds. New species were otherwise very few, but worth to mention are 1 Collared and 3 Barred Forest-Falcons heard, 1 Black-billed Scythebill at nest hole (young heard), 1 Olivaceous Elaenia, 3 Hangnest Tody-Tyrants and 2 Cinnamon Tanagers. At 10.30 we started a long drive towards Caraça 500 kilometers inland. The Pedra Azul, an impressive granite dome resembling a smaller version of Half Dome of Yosemite, was partly clouded today. Luckily we had been able to photograph it two days before. We didn't reach the small town of Barão de Cocais, near Caraça, until well after dusk where we found the cheapest hotel so far, thanks to Lars's well-proved negotiation skills. The whole town was alive this evening since the semifinal of Copa Brasil was held between Cruzeiro of Belo Horizonte and a São Paulo team. When the Belo Horizonte team scored, a loud roar burst out as all Brazilians went nuts!

3/7 With two guys of the crew feeling a bit weak today, we had an easy birding day at Parque Natural do Caraça. It was a chilly and clear morning. We parked the car by the monastery and started with the Cascatinha trail, which has beautiful surroundings. Here we found 4 Velvety Black-Tyrants, 2 Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatchers, 2 Hangnest Tody-Tyrants, 1 Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, 1 White-bellied Warbler, and, on our way back, 4 Serra Antwrens, 1 male Amethyst Woodstar and 1 Glittering-bellied Emerald. After that we spent an easy hour by the monastery. Later on we decided to take a walk into the forest of the Tanque Grande trail, which turned out to be an excellent choice. Here we found an astonishing flock of 14 (!) Swallow-tailed Cotingas, 1 Red-ruffed Fruitcrow, 1 Rufous Gnateater, 1 singing White-breasted Tapaculo (once, after several play-back attempts),  4 Ochre-rumped Antbirds and 2 Masked Titi Monkeys. Rather satisfied we then continued towards Serra do Cipó, northeast of Belo Horizonte, where we arrived shortly before dusk. We stayed at the somewhat overpriced hotel Chapéu do Sol ($15/person) which however is perfectly situated for birdwatchers.

4/7 We got up before dawn to be on site early, but it turned out that we were locked in! We first climbed through a window, and Bengt jumped down the wall as we all would have done if Lars hadn't been able to wake somebody up. Anyway, we were at the highest part of the road by 06.30. It was rather windy up here, but today we weren't looking for forest birds. Geologically, the Cipó area turned out to be very interesting, and lots of beautiful flowers were blooming all over the place. It didn't take long before we had located 1 Gray-backed Tachuri and 2 Hyacinth Visorbearers, as well as 4 Yellow-rumped Marshbirds and a pair of Southern Yellowthroats. After that we didn't see much for a while. When reaching a plateau-like area with rocky outcrops, Samuel finally found the most important species of the area, the Cipó Canastero. At least 2 birds could be located and seen very well. Good! When approaching the car after quite a walk we found several Buff-throated Serra-Finches and a pair of Cinereous Warbling-Finches. We had scored the "great 5" already by 09.30! As we had to go all the way to Serra da Canastra this day we couldn't stay for much longer, and that we had to pay for later on. Bengt was lucky to see a female Horned Sungem, otherwise we didn't find many new species before we headed for Belo Horizonte. On the way we saw 2 Curl-crested Jays and 13 Brazilian Ducks. When approaching Belo Horizonte we got a bit lost, a mistake that delayed us perhaps an hour. We didn't reach São Roque de Minas until 19.00, but here we stayed at the nicest hotel on our journey. The owner was very friendly and helpful, and we got dinners that covered an entire table! She even made an English-speaking woman come to help us with language problems and information about the national park!

5/7 Full day at the northern section of Serra da Canastra national park. We started just before dawn, and we are very lucky to still be alive because of what soon happened. The road to the park entrance was very steep and in bad condition. At one point we had to reverse the car to make a new try to get by a steep section of the road. The one of us driving didn't notice the way the road was bending. Luckily the others did, but still the back right tire was only ten centimeters from a vertical drop of 30 meters when the car stopped... Quite scary! Then the car got stuck in this position. We finally had to lift the back of the car with summoned forces and push it in a favorable position. What a start of the day! We were all a bit shaky after this, I can tell you that... At the entrance we had to wait for the park ranger to come before we could enter, which gave us the opportunity to find 2 Black-throated Saltators and 2 Blue Finches (imm. male+female). The clouds were so low that they covered the plateau of Serra da Canastra almost entirely, so we drove on to Retiro das Pedras for our first try to locate the Brazilian Merganser, just stopping for our first amazing Toco Toucans. Retiro das Pedras was a beautiful place with many birds around. Getting a clear view of the small river wasn't easy, except at a few places. Lars had a lucky moment when a Brasília Tapaculo came out of a riverside bush, just to disappear without a trace a moment later. We had almost given up on the Mergansers, but when we checked the place with the best view a last time they were just there! A pair of Brazilian Mergansers swam wearily out into the river just ten meters ahead, allowing terrific observations before they disappeared beyond a river bend. GREAT! Other good birds seen in this general area were 2 White-eared Puffbirds, another Brasília Tapacolo heard, 1 Gray Monjita, 1 male Cock-tailed Tyrant (bonus bird this time of the year!), 5 White-rumped Tanagers, 4 male Plumbeous Seedeaters, c. 10 Stripe-tailed Yellow-Finches and 1 male Black-masked Finch. On our way to the upper part of Casca d'Anta, Bengt and Samuel discovered a distant dark thing in the grasslands. When stopping the car we immediately saw what it was. A Giant Anteater! COOL! Lars suggested that we should try to walk out to it with the wind in our faces, since Anteaters have a very bad eyesight but are good smellers. So we did, and we had no problems to come within 15 meters of this marvelous, weird-looking creature. Casca d'Anta and the view from there was very nice, and here we also found an ad. male Blue Finch. In the late afternoon we went walking into the grasslands and added 2 Spotted Nothuras, 1 Grassland Sparrow and 1 Great Pampa-Finch to our list, as well as 60 Yellow-rumped Marshbirds. We rounded up with a Maned Wolf standing in tall grass and disappearing rather quickly, 2 Pampas Deers and another Giant Anteater which could be studied at a distance of only 6 meters! What a great day… [The park rangers at Canastra put out food for a Maned Wolf every evening and are keen to have visitors watch the big feed. One of them beat a kitchen pan with a spoon at dusk, and a Maned Wolf promptly appeared at the door to the kitchen. It's not as touristy as the Maned Wolf feeding at Caraça, where the Maned Wolf runs a gauntlet of screaming children and flashes going off.]

6/7 We started the birding outside the park, since we wouldn't get inside until 08.00 anyway. Here we found some typical birds tolerant to fragmented habitats, such as 5 White Woodpeckers, 5 Toco Toucans, 2 Pale-breasted Spinetails, 2 Narrow-billed Woodcreepers, 2 Gray Pileated-Finches and some Yellow-chevroned Parakeets. Red-legged Seriemas were heard once again without being seen. Otherwise we concentrated on the grasslands this morning, with little success. We flushed a very probable Ochre-breasted Pipit, a couple of Black-masked Finches and a Spotted Nothura, but not much else. On our way back we surprisingly found a pair of Cinereous Warbling-Finches in roadside scrub. This was probably the first record of this rare and little known species from Serra da Canastra! We had our last overwhelming meal at our hotel in São Roque before leaving for the Casca d'Anta in the southern part of the national park. Mike Hunter's trip report told us they'd found hummer feeders with Stripe-breasted Starthroats in the village of Vargem Bonita (however did they manage to find those?). After some circling we found the house, but no feeders. The people living there sure were interested in birds, though, as they had about 15 cages with different species hanging on the veranda. The locals must have wondered what kind of crazy guys we were, sneaking around looking into gardens. Samuel finally found a male Stripe-breasted Starthroat sitting at the top of a tall tree, and our story got a happy ending! Since our two nights of camping in Serra dos Orgãos, voices had been raised about minus degrees and constant freezing if camping again, but this time there was no way to back out. We had an easy afternoon birding near the beautiful waterfall and then put up our tents in good time before dark. We made our second surprising discovery of the day when we found 3 Chestnut-headed Tanagers, also this a possible first for Serra da Canastra. Nice were also 1 White-throated Spadebill and 1 female Helmeted Manakin. The night wasn't that cold after all, but what species was the owl calling at 04.00 in the morning? It sounded most like a Stygian Owl, but another first for Serra da Canastra would perhaps be too good to be true...

7/7 Our last morning at Serra da Canastra produced very few new species, but it was a beautiful morning. The early birds, that means Samuel alone, saw a flyby Brazilian Merganser - wow! - otherwise the best birds were 2 Bat Falcons, 1 male Helmeted Manakin, 1 Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher, 1 Gray-hooded Flycatcher, 1 male Fork-tailed Woodnymph and 1 male White-headed Marsh-Tyrant. When we came out to the big São Paulo road the car was in great need of a wash (very limited sight backwards) and more gasoline. Our driver this time took the wrong side of the gas pump. When he reversed to take the right side he drove straight into a concrete pillar... This could just not be true! It was no pretty sight that met us when we got out of the car, but what else could be expected as every part of that darn vehicle was plastic. A good thing, though, was that it was easier than before to close the back door... We discussed back and forth about what to do, and we finally just continued, leaving the problem for another day (otherwise the thing to do is to go straight to the police and report the damage on site). We had a long drive towards Itatiaia ahead of us. What looked very far on the map wasn't that bad, because the roads were in a good condition all the way. We stayed the night in Itamonte, only 15 kilometers from Agulhas Negras road of Itatiaia NP. We had pizza for dinner, but almost had trouble getting them because the owner insisted that we had ordered too large and too many pizzas. Indeed he was right!

8/7 Once again we had a windy morning, but not that bad. We reached the Agulhas Negras Road, which was in a terrible condition, in the early morning, and drove slowly upwards. Bamboo birds were very few, but we had some parties coming through now and then. At the famous pond, Lars and Mathias were the only ones seeing the Itatiaia Spinetail, but we had no trouble at all finding more of them higher up. Some of the best birds seen during the day were 2 Rufous-thighed Hawks, 2 White-spotted Woodpeckers, several Gray-capped Tyrannulets, 1 Serra do Mar Tyrannulet, 1 Shear-tailed Gray Tyrant, 1 male Black-capped Piprites, 1 male Blue-naped Chlorophonia, 1 Eastern Slaty-Thrush, 1 Golden-winged Cacique and c. 10 Red-rumped Warbling-Finches. In the late afternoon we made a miserable try to find a cheaper place to stay inside the National Park, but ended up at the reasonably prized Itatiaia Park Hotel in the town itself. We had been assured by a park guard that we would get in by 06.00, but everyone we talked with had a different opinion about opening hours and if you were allowed in earlier or not. We just had to wait and see.

9/7 We could not get in until 08.00, said the guard at service this morning, but with half a lie and half language problems, by mentioning Hotel Simon, we were let in. We started to walk on the Três Picos trail and were met by the strongest bird chorus of the whole trip. That was a good sound! The activity dropped fast, however, and at times it was very quiet. Notable birds during the walk were 1 Black Hawk-Eagle, 4 Pileated Parrots seen very well perched, 1 Red-breasted Toucan, 3 Spot-billed Toucanets, 2 Gray-breasted Spinetails, 2 Streak-capped Antwrens, c. 10 Plain and 3 Rufous-backed Antvireos, 4 White-throated Spadebills, 1 Large-headed Flatbill, 4 Chestnut-bellied Euphonias and 1 Brown Tanager. In the afternoon we tried the Jeep Trail, which was considerably overgrown mostly with tall bamboo. We had few birds here and not many of bigger interest, but we had nice observations of Ferruginous Antbirds. This required a better luck tomorrow.

10/7 We got inside the park the same way as the day before, but half an hour earlier so we could walk a bit on the trail slightly before dawn. Among the birds today can be mentioned 1 Rufous-capped Motmot (heard and seen as a silhouette), 2 White-spotted Woodpeckers, 1 singing male Bertoni's Antbird, 1 Slaty Bristlefront heard, 1 pair of White-shouldered Fire-eye seen very well, 2 Rufous Gnateaters, 2 Variegated Antpittas heard and 4 Golden-winged Caciques. At the middle of the day we visited hotel Ypê, where 4 Saffron Toucanets came in to feed on fruit at a very close range, and in the afternoon we did some birding along the Maromba trail and around Hotel Simon. We found 1 Robust and 2 Yellow-fronted Woodpeckers, 5 Swallow Flycatchers and c. 5 Uniform Finches. This was our last day and night in Itatiaia. We weren't maybe as impressed by the birding as many others have described it, but that's partly because we had seen most of the species before. If we had started here instead of at Serra dos Orgãos we would of course had been more satisfied. It was great anyway.

11/7 It took us 2½ hours to drive to Perequê, a town by the coast where the critically endangered Black-hooded Antwren has one of its last tiny strongholds. Thanks to an excellent road description we found the site with no problem, and by 09.00 we were out birding. It didn't take very long before we located a pair of Black-hooded Antwrens, which were seen very well. Excellent! But there were many more birds around. The two best discoveries were those of 2 Fork-tailed Pygmy-Tyrants and at least 2 São Paulo Tyrannulets, both species rare and totally unexpected! Other nice birds were 1 female Bare-throated Bellbird, 1 Buff-bellied Puffbird, 3 Spot-breasted Antvireos, 3 Scaled Antbirds and several White-bearded Manakins. The surrounding foothill forest seemed to be both extensive and in excellent condition, so there must be really great birding potential in the area. At 11.30 we headed for Rio de Janeiro. During our drive along the beautiful coastline we had some Magnificent Frigatebirds, always a welcome sight. It was a hot day, no less than 34 C according to signs in Rio. Now it was time to do something about our damaged car. As we had to drive just past the airport anyway, we stopped by at Avis to have a talk. We also needed to reconfirm our flight to Cuiabá. Yes, we needed a police report, and it had to be issued at the police station closest to the place of the accident. OK, we had to come up with a fictive accident place and get the report at Araruama where we were supposed to stay the night... So we did, but first we went to McDonald's. Two hours later we arrived at Araruama where we found a moderately priced hotel, Lars's negotiation included.

12/7 Today we were going to see the other extremely local Formicivora antwren of the Rio de Janeiro area, the Restinga Antwren, which was described first in 1990. It was easily found in scrub along the Macambaba Road next to the coast. There were saltpans everywhere but few birds, so we went to Arraial do Cabo to look for coastal birds and hopefully a few pelagics. We were rewarded with no less than 150+ Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatrosses (around a fishing boat), 4 Manx Shearwaters (Bengt), 1 Pomarine Jaeger, 500 Brown Boobies, 150 South American Terns and 2 Cayenne Terns. We also had a flock of 20+ Common Waxbills. On our way back we made a few brief stops in forest patches to look for Black-backed Tanager. It was windy, and the few birds we saw was almost impossible to identify. A Hang-nest Tody-Tyrant and 4 Plain-breasted Ground-Doves are worth mentioning. Our three first birding weeks now had come to an end. Back at the airport something "big" had happened. Special forces from the federal police, fully armed, were all over the place, checking vehicles and looking extremely tough in their sunglasses and big shotguns. We never found out what had happened. The car damage thing was solved very well - we didn't even have to pay the excess. We made a hotel reservation at the 3-star DuCasse Hotel at Copacabana and took a taxi to get there. Most of us had a very lazy evening, watching cable TV and so on.

13/7 All except Bengt wanted to do some sightseeing, with Corcovado as the most important place to visit. It was cloudy and only about 20 degrees all day, and hardly any people at all were at the beaches. We bought a 24 hour ticket to a tourist bus and went to the Corcovado train station. Our train wagon was full of Japanese tourists who were excited by pretty much everything they saw! The view from the statue of Christ was of course splendid, but it would have been much better without the clouds. The statue itself and its situation also were impressive. We took the bus back to Copacabana and were pretty satisfied with the sightseeing. Samuel was perhaps the most active member of the group, getting a haircut, buying donuts at Dunkin Donuts and scanning the bay from the hotel roof for terns and gulls. Result: 225 Brown Boobies and 2 Parasitic Jaegers in 40 minutes. Another lazy evening followed - you need it after 3 weeks of intensive birding...

14/7 Today we were going to Cuiabá and Mato Grosso. At 09.00 we took a taxi to the airport, with our plane leaving at 11.30. In Brasília we had to wait for our second flight for a couple of hours, but finally arrived at Cuiabá at about 17.00. Again we had arranged a rental car with Avis. However, there was no office at the airport as we had been promised. We were told that the office was nearby, so Mathias and Lars walked away to get the car. Meanwhile a man named Munir Nasr, from the local tour company Natureco, tried to get Bengt and Samuel interested in his services. We told him as it was, the other guys were getting the car, but he still showed us maps, folders and itineraries. It didn't take long until Mathias and Lars came back - apparently the Avis office was far away in the center of the city. By then we had begun to get interested in the offer. We discussed back and forth, and ultimately we decided to reject the rental car and take the chance on this tour. We didn't expect much help finding the more uncommon birds, but we were guaranteed to see Hyacinth Macaws... And then we didn't have to think about all the practical arrangements. We had counted on camping a few nights, and it felt good to reject that idea too. First we went to Munir's office and made the necessary arrangements for our first two days that were going to be spent in the Chapada dos Guimarães area. Munir's father became our driver, and the guide was living in Chapada. We finally arrived at Chapada at about 20.30. Exciting to be in another part of South America!

15/7 Our first day at Chapada didn't start as well as we had hoped. Our guide should have turned up the night before, which he didn't, then the front door was locked, and when we finally got outside we had to wait for our guide for half an hour. Then there was no breakfast made, so we had to buy it on our way. We were a bit irritated about this, since we missed the perhaps most important hour of the day. Just as we had expected, our guide didn't know much about birds, and indeed he didn't know any English names of the few he recognized either. During our two days together he didn't fully understand that we were serious birders, and what the demands of such people are. Anyway, we started with a visit to the national park and the Véu de Noiva waterfall – a beautiful place. Among the most interesting species found here were 6 Red-and-green Macaws, c. 25 Biscutate Swifts, 1 Pearl Kite, 1 White-eared Puffbird, 1 Blue-crowned Motmot, 1 male Band-tailed Manakin, a few Curl-crested Jays, 1 Eastern Slaty-Thrush and 2 Guira Tanagers. It was a quite hot day, though, and bird activity was mostly very weak. In the afternoon we first walked in a beautiful valley with a stream surrounded by grasslands and impressive cliffs. Here we found 3 Masked Gnatcatchers, 6 Red Pilated-Finches and some others. The best birding of the day was in the evening, when we went to a patch of tall forest. Good birds included 1 Long-billed Starthroat, 2 Chestnut-eared Aracaris, 1 male Pale-crested Woodpecker, 2 White-wedged Piculets, 4 Large-billed Antwrens, 1 Rusty-backed Antwren and 1 Mouse-colored Tyrannulet. The evening saved the day, but we still had a lot more to see.

16/7 During the night it once again started to blow. In the morning the wind was quite forceful, and it didn't look good at all. We took a chance and went to a valley our guide said was good for birds - perhaps he could be right, at least maybe we would find shelter for the wind. We didn't get much of either. The habitat was poor secondary forest, scrub and pasture, and we saw very few birds of note. After a while we suggested that we should go back to the forest of yesterday evening, and so we did. The wind decreased a bit, and we were able to find i.e. 2 Red-necked Woodpeckers (close!), 1 Cinnamon-throated Hermit, 2 Black-fronted Nunbirds, 1 Southern Scrub-Flycatcher and 1 female Band-tailed Manakin. After lunch we went to the lookout point Cidade de Pedras. On our way Samuel found 3 Greater Rheas, a most exciting and welcome sight! The Cidade das Pedras was a wonderful but very windy place, with vertical cliffs plunging several hundred meters to the valley bottom. It resembled a landscape of western US. A rather odd observation was that of 45 migrating Wood Storks.

The late afternoon was spent looking for forest and cerrado birds, with no greater luck. Shortly before dusk we left Chapada dos Guimarães to return to Cuiabá. For the first time on our journey we felt that we had failed - there were many species we had to leave behind. But, tomorrow we were going to Pantanal, and there we would turn things around!!

17/7 By 08.00 our new, young crew (Bruno and Michael) arrived in a white Volkswagen bus, and soon we were on our way to Poconé and the Transpantaneira. Along the way some of us could spot the only seen Red-legged Seriema of the trip, and at a small wetland we had our first 2 Southern Screamers, a few Black-collared Hawks and Snail Kites, 8 Bare-faced and 2 Buff-necked Ibises and other common wetland birds. The Buff-necked Ibis was Samuel's 3000th species, a joyous moment for him! At the Ibama gate on the Transpantaneira we stopped and had a great time watching many new species; 2 Sunbitterns, a close-up Rufescent Tiger-Heron, 1 Green Ibis, 2 Roseate Spoonbills, 8 Black-bellied Whistling-Duck, 2 Yellow-billed Cardinals as well as a bunch of Caymans and 1 Silvery Marmoset. But this was only the beginning... Along the road there were birds everywhere. Snail Kites, Black-collared Hawks and many species of heron were very common, and it didn't take long before we had our first Jabirus and Maguari Storks. At noon we arrived at Rio Clarinho Lodge, where we were going to spend the rest of the day and our first night. Birding was excellent in this area. When waiting for the lunch to be served we strolled around in the immediate surroundings, watching and photographing. Two Rufous Cacholotes, c. 10 Bay-winged Cowbirds, 1 Red-crested and many Yellow-billed Cardinals and Purplish Jays came in to laid-out food. Then suddenly, to our big surprise, there was a 3 meter long anaconda on the lawn beside the lunch tables! Lars wanted to take a "Jan Lindblad"-picture of the snake and himself. He tried to pick it up by the neck, but failed and got bitten instead... Fortunately it just made a quick bite and didn't hold on to the hand. The rest of us would never have dreamt of doing something like that! After lunch we went for a short walk to a nearby forest to see our first White-lored Spinetails, 2 Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrants, a few Troupials and Epaulet Orioles and 1 Red-billed Scythebill. Later in the afternoon we walked down to the Rio Clarinho to make a canoe trip on the river. That was a wonderful experience! We made our way slowly and almost soundless on the beautiful river, with great birds everywhere. Among the species seen during the evening can be mentioned 1 juv. Boat-billed Heron, a few Blue-throated and at least 10 Red-throated Piping-Guans (!), 2 Chestnut-bellied Guans, 7 Bare-faced Curassows, several Sunbitterns, 2 Gray-necked Wood-Rails, c. 100 Blue-fronted Amazons, 5 Band-tailed Nighthawks, 1 male Blue-crowned Trogon, 1 Pygmy Kingfisher, 2 Band-tailed Antbirds, 2 Pale-legged Horneros and 2 Lesser Kiskadees. A great start!

18/7 After an early breakfast we went to make a new boat trip on the river. Among the highlights this time were 2 Sungrebes (seen very well), 2 Cream-colored Woodpeckers (surprise!), 1 male Golden-green Woodpecker, 1 Rusty-backed Spinetail and 1 Great Rufous Woodcreeper. Just when we were to be heading back to the lodge a group of 5 Giant Otters came swimming by - pretty cool! We continued our southbound journey on the Transpantaneira and stopped here and there where it looked promising. Before reaching Pousada Pantaneiro in the late afternoon we had seen many new species, including 3 Long-winged Harriers, 5 Great Black-Hawks, 4 Long-tailed Ground-Doves, 2 Hyacinth Macaws in poor light, very far away, and not seen by Samuel (bommer!), c. 60 Nanday Parakeets, 2 Chotoy Spinetails, 5 Yellow-chinned Spinetails, 4 Greater Thornbirds, 2 Great and 4 Barred Antshrikes, 2 Plain Tyrannulets, 2 Ashy-headed Greenlets, 3 Scarlet-headed Blackbirds and 7 Rusty-collared Seedeaters. We also found our 3rd Giant Anteater! Late in the afternoon the owner of the Pousada Pantaneiro took us to a palm grove regularly used as feeding place by Hyacinth Macaws. We were all very eager to see them! On our way we saw Jaguar tracks and no less than 16 Bare-faced Curassows. It seemed to take forever to get there, but when we finally arrived it didn't take long before we saw our first Hyacinth Macaws - and what wonderful birds they were! Totally amazing! Around 30 birds could be studied very well and some of them photographed at close range in the evening sunlight. This was no doubt a major highlight in our birding careers. It was a big day in sheer number of species too, we recorded more than 140 species!

19/7 We started the morning with a walk just near the pousada, and recorded Buff-breasted Wrens (no response to play-back of Fawn-breasted Wren, but strong reactions when playing Buff-breasted Wren, and this happened several times during the day), 2 Pygmy Kingfishers, 100 Black-crowned Night-Herons, 3 White Woodpeckers and 1 White-bellied Seedeater. A real delight was to study Hyacinth Macaws when eating breakfast! Next we would look for forest birds. It was rather quiet, but we did find 5 Golden-collared Macaws, 1 Buff-bellied Hermit, 8 Black-fronted Nunbirds, 1 Pale-crested Woodpecker, 1 Straight-billed Woodcreeper, 1 Stripe-necked Tody-Flycatcher and 1 Saffron-billed Sparrow. After lunch we went farther south to Campo Jofre, a vast open area full of birds. However, the first goodie came just two bridges after the pousada - an Ocelot, walking right on the road towards us! When about 75 meters ahead of us it walked into the ditch, and that was it, we thought. Then it walked up on the road again and walked right in front of the bus! When only 3-4 meters from us it suddenly realized our presence and quickly disappeared under the bridge. We got excellent photos through the front window! A bit later we found a Southern Tamandua, which was seen rather well climbing a tree! At Campo Jofre we had no problems keeping busy, with snakes, Capybaras and lots of birds including 35 Roseate Spoonbills, 20 Southern Screamers, 4 Large-billed and c. 10 Yellow-billed Terns, 300 Monk Parakeets, an incredible 120 Nacunda Nighthawks and 100 White-rumped Swallows. On our way back we had more wonderful Hyacinth Macaws, with the total for the day reaching 16 individuals. Yet another excellent day.

20/7 Today we were out on the forest road early. The activity was a bit better, but still there were a few rather common species we couldn't find. We had to be satisfied with 4 Chestnut-bellied Guans, 1 Striped Cuckoo seen, 1 Euler's Flycatcher, 1 Rufous Casiornis, 4 Flavescent Warblers, 2 Gray-headed Tanagers and most of the species seen the day before. After break-fast we headed northwards and arrived at Pouso Alegre Lodge at noon. After lunch we went horseback-riding in the vast grasslands surrounding the lodge. This was a totally new and interesting experience (except for 10 minutes practice at Clarinho lodge) for Mathias and Samuel, and a bumpy one too. After three hours on the horseback we were pretty satisfied, having seen many birds including 2 Black-backed Water-Tyrants, 250 Limpkins, 100 Nacunda Nighthawks and 1 male White-browed Blackbird to name a few. Our butts weren't in the best shape, though... In the evening almost 40 Hyacinth Macaws came to their night roost just by the lodge! This was our last night in Brazil.

21/7 To Bengt's relief we finally found a Lineated Woodpecker during a short morning walk. After breakfast we headed for Cuiabá, leaving Bruno behind with some Japanese girls that had arrived at the lodge the day before. We made some brief stops along the way, seeing i.e. 2 Giant Otters, and staying a bit longer in the area near the Ibama gate. Samuel was happy when a South American Snipe was found and seen well, since he had missed it earlier at Pindobas IV. He eventually got the best personal list of the participants, 536 of the 541 species recorded on the trip. Beyond Poconé we saw our last Capped and Whistling Herons, before the car suddenly coughed a few times and stopped. Hmm, not very good... There was some emergency gas available, and, luckily, we got the bus going again and were able to fill it up completely at a gas station 5 kilometres away. Back in Cuiabá we said farewell to our young driver Michael, and then Munir took us to McDonald's for lunch. No more rice and beans... Munir was pretty excited about our ocelot and the number of bird species seen, and we gave him some advice about where he could advertise and ideas of what birders want to see when they go to the Pantanal. We took a shower at his place and got everything ready, then we went to the airport. At about 17.00 we took off for Campo Grande, and in the evening we reached the chaotic São Paulo Airport. We didn't exactly rush to the gate, so when it was 40 minutes left we found ourselves in a long, long cue to the passport control. Oops, didn't think about that... We felt a bit nervous, because we would have missed the plane if it hadn't been delayed as all the other flights from this airport. At 23.30 we were on our way home.

22/7 We had a nice flight over Portugal, Spain and France, with much of Paris seen very well. When flying in to Frankfurt in the afternoon we had to circle over the Rhine Valley for a while, and when we finally landed we were really late. Mathias had missed his plane, but his baggage would be sent all the way to Stockholm. The other three of us had been denied our baggage to be sent all the way to Gothenburg for some strange reason, and we had only 25 minutes to get our stuff and get to the gate. We didn't know what to do, but decided quickly that Lars and Bengt would wait for the baggage, while Samuel rushed to the gate. What we should have done was to ignore our baggage and get on the plane. The baggage would have been sent to our homes somehow. Anyway, Mathias got a plane to Stockholm within 1½ hours, while the others had to wait for five hours for the next plane to Gothenburg. At least we were compensated by Varig with a 25 DM lunch ticket. Finally, at 23.20, we came to Gothenburg. Then we only had a couple of hours left by car, and Samuel would still not be home until noon the next day...

Species List

This species list is based on Samuel's personal observations. Additional observations have been included at least for the more interesting species, but the list is not fully complete.

Greater Rhea Rhea americana* 16/7 3 Chapada dos Guimarães, 17/7 1 pair Cuiabá-Poconé, 17/7 1 male, 18/7 3 Transpantaneira.

Solitary Tinamou Tinamus solitarius* 26/6 2 heard Sooretama, 1/7 1 heard, 2/7 2 heard Nova Lombardia.

Little Tinamou Crypturellus soui 27/6 1 heard, 28/6 1 heard Sooretama. Vocally very different from birds in Ecuador and Costa Rica.

Brown Tinamou Crypturellus obsoletus 22/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 30/6 1 heard Pindobas IV, 1/7 2-3 heard, 2/7 3 heard Nova Lombardia, 3/7 2 heard Caraça, 7/7 1 heard Serra da Canastra, 8/7 3 heard, 9-10/7 1 heard Itatiaia.

Undulated Tinamou Crypturellus undulatus 17-21/7 1-6 heard daily+1 seen 20/7, Transpantaneira.

Yellow-legged Tinamou Crypturellus noctivagus* 26/6 at least 4 heard, 27/6 a few heard, 28/6 1+ a few heard Sooretama.

Variegated Tinamou Crypturellus variegatus 26/6 1 heard, 28/6 1-2 heard Sooretama.

Red-winged Tinamou Rhynchotus rufescens 26/6 1 heard Sooretama, 6/7 1 Serra da Canastra.

Spotted Nothura Nothura maculosa 5/7 2, 6/7 1, 7/7 1 Serra da Canastra.

Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche chlororhynchos 12/7 c. 150 Arraial do Cabo.

Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus 12/7 4 Arraial do Cabo.

Brown Booby Sula leucogaster 12/7 c. 500 Arraial do Cabo, 13/7 c. 225 Rio de Janeiro.

Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus Seen in small numbers at a few places in the southest, fairly common 17-21/7 Transpantaneira.

Anhinga Anhinga anhinga 17-21/7 seen daily in the Pantanal with highest number being 25 birds at 18/7.

Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens 11/7 8 Perequê-Rio de Janeiro, 12/7 c. 50 Macambaba Road/Arraial do Cabo, 13/7 c. 15, 14/7 1 Rio de Janeiro.

Whistling Heron Syrigma sibilatrix 14/7 1 Brasília airport, 17/7 1, 20/7 3 Transpantaneira, 21/7 1 Poconé-Cuiabá.

Capped Heron Pilherodius pileatus 18/7 3 ex., 19/7 1 ex., 21/7 3 ex. Transpantaneira, 21/7 1 ex. Poconé-Cuiabá.

Cocoi Heron Ardea cocoi 22/6 1, 12/7 1 Rio de Janeiro, 17-21/7 common Transpantaneira.

Great Egret Egretta alba Seen here and there in small numbers in the southeast, most of them around Rio de Janeiro. Common in the Pantanal.

Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea 17/7 2 ad., 21/7 1 ad., 1 juv. Transpantaneira.

Snowy Egret Egretta thula fairly common at Rio de Janeiro at 22/6 and 11-12/7, and at Macambaba Road 12/7. Common in the Pantanal.

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis fairly common.

Striated Heron Butorides striatus 17-21/7 fairly common Pantanal.

Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 9/7 2 Itatiaia, 11/7 3 Niterói, 17/7 1 ad, 18/7 3 ad., 19/7 c. 130, 20/7 c. 50, 21/7 c. 10 Transpantaneira.

Boat-billed Heron Cochlearius cochlearius 17/7 1 juv. Río Clarinho, Transpantaneira.

Rufescent Tiger-Heron Tigrisoma lineatum 17-21/7 5-15 daily Transpantaneira.

Wood Stork Mycteria americana 16/7 c. 45 migrating south Chapada dos Guimarães, 17-21/7 5-100 daily Transpantaneira.

Maguari Stork Ciconia maguari 17/7 c. 10, 19/10 c. 10, 20/7 a few, 21/7 4 Transpantaneira.

Jabiru Jabiru mycteria 17-21/7 10-30 daily Transpantaneira.

Plumbeous Ibis Theristictus caerulescens 17-21/7 6-10 daily Transpantaneira.

Buff-necked Ibis Theristictus caudatus 17/7 2, 18/7 2, 19/7 6, 20/7 c. 10 Transpantaneira.

Green Ibis Mesembrinibis cayennensis 17/7 3, 18/7 4, 21/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Whispering Ibis Phimosus infuscatus 17/7 8 Cuiabá-Poconé, 17/7 c. 5, 19/7 8, 20/7 4, 21/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja 17/7 2, 19/7 35, 20/7 c. 10, 21/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Southern Screamer Chauna torquata 17/7 2 Cuiabá-Poconé, 19/7 c. 20, 20/7 c. 15 Transpantaneira.

Black-bellied Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis 17/7 8, 19/7 14 Transpantaneira.

Brazilian Duck Amazonetta brasiliensis 4/7 13 Serra do Cipó-Belo Horizonte, 17/7 2, 19/7 5, 21/7 4 Transpantaneira.

Brazilian Merganser Mergus octosetaceus** 5/7 1 pair Retiro das Pedras, 7/7 1 flying by below Casca d'Anta, Serra da Canastra. The total population of this extremely rare bird is possibly below 200 birds.

Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura seen in small numbers at many places. A bit more common in the Pantanal.

Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes burrovianus 26/6 c. 15 Sooretama, 17-21/7 fairly common Transpantaneira.

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus common to abundant.

King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa 26/6 1 ad., 1 juv. Sooretama, 4/7 1 ad. Serra do Cipó, 15/7 1 ad., 1 juv., 16/7 1 ad. Chapada dos Guimarães.

Gray-headed Kite Leptodon cayanensis 23/6 1 juv. Serra dos Orgãos.

Hook-billed Kite Chondrohierax uncinatus 28/6 1 ad. Sooretama.

Pearl Kite Gampsonyx swainsonii 15/7 2 Chapada dos Guimarães, 17/7 2 Transpantaneira.

White-tailed Kite Elanus leucurus 2/7 1 ad. Santa Teresa-Vitória, 15/7 2 ad., 16/7 2 ad. Chapada dos Guimarães.

Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis 17-21/7 20-45 daily Transpantaneira.

Long-winged Harrier Circus buffoni 18/7 3 Transpantaneira.

Rufous-thighed Hawk Accipiter erythronemius 25/6 1 Teresópolis-Carmo, 8/7 2 Itatiaia.

Crane Hawk Geranospiza caerulescens 28/6 1 ad. Sooretama, 8/7 1 ad. Itatiaia.

Great Black-Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga 18/7 5 ad., 19/7 3 ad. Transpantaneira.

Savanna Hawk Buteogallus meridionalis 25/6 1 Carmo, 17-21/7 5-15 daily Transpantaneira.

Black-collared Hawk Busarellus nigricollis 17-21/7 10-20 daily Transpantaneira.

Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle Geranoaetus melanoleucus 5/7 1 Serra da Canastra.

Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris mostly single birds observed at many places, the highest number being 6 birds at Carmo 25/6.

Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus 24/6 1 of light morph Serra dos Orgãos.

White-tailed Hawk Buteo albicaudatus 2/7 1 ad. E. Santa Teresa, 4/7 1 ad. Serra do Cipó-Belo Horizonte, 1 ad. Belo Horizonte-Divinópolis, 5/7 6, 6/7 1 Serra da Canastra, 11/7 1 Perequê-Rio de Janeiro, 16/7 2 Chapada dos Guimarães, 19/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle Spizastur melanoleucus* 26/6 1 ad. Sooretama.

Black Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus tyrannus 1/7 1 ad. Nova Lombardia, 9/7 1 ad. Itatiaia, 17/7 1 ad. Transpantaneira.

Ornate Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus ornatus 28/6 1 ad. Sooretama.

Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima fairly common, especially in the southeast.

Southern Caracara Polyborus plancus fairly common. Split by some.

Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans 28/6 1 Sooretama, 20/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Barred Forest-Falcon Micrastur ruficollis 24/6 1 male Serra dos Orgãos, 2/7 3 heard Nova Lombardia, 10/7 1 heard Itatiaia.

Collared Forest-Falcon Micrastur semitorquatus 2/7 1 heard Nova Lombardia.

American Kestrel Falco sparverius 4/7 1 Serra do Cipó-Belo Horizonte, 6/7 1 pair, 7/7 1 Serra da Canastra, 12/7 2 Macambaba Road, 16/7 2 males Chapada dos Guimarães.

Aplomado Falcon Falco femoralis 26/6 1 Sooretama, 5/7 1, 6/7 1 Serra da Canastra.

Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis 7/7 1 pair Serra da Canastra.

Chaco Chachalaca Ortalis canicollis 17-21/7 common Transpantaneira.

Rusty-margined Guan Penelope superciliaris 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Dusky-legged Guan Penelope obscura 25/6 2 Carmo, 29/6 a few heard Pindobas IV, 8/7 23, 9/7 1+heard Itatiaia.

Chestnut-bellied Guan Penelope ochrogaster** 17-21/7 1-4 daily Transpantaneira.

Blue-throated Piping-Guan Pipile cumanensis 17/7 at least 2 Transpantaneira. Probably more birds seen.

Red-throated Piping-Guan Pipile cujubi 17/7 at least 10, 18/7 1, 20/7 1 Transpantaneira. We were hoping to see Red-throated Piping-Guans, but it was a big surprise that it would be dominating completely over the Blue-throated. A winter species in the pantanal?

Bare-faced Curassow Crax fasciolata 17/7 7, 18/7 16, 19/7 7, 20/7 1 male, 21/7 1 female Transpantaneira.

Spot-winged Wood-Quail Odontophorus capueira 26/6 2 heard Sooretama.

Limpkin Aramus guarauna guarauna 17-21/7 fairly common Transpantaneira. At least 250 birds were recorded 20/7.

Gray-necked Wood-Rail Aramides cajanea 17/7 2, 18/7 1 heard, 19/7 1, 21/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail Aramides saracura 1/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 8/7 2 Itatiaia.

Ash-throated Crake Porzana albicollis 27/6 1 heard Sooretama.

Common Gallinule Gallinula chloropus 25/6 1 Carmo.

Sungrebe Heliornis fulica 18/7 1 pair Rio Clarinho, Transpantaneira.

Sunbittern Eurypyga helias 17/7 c. 15, 18/7 1, 20/7 6 Transpantaneira.

Red-legged Seriema Cariama cristata 25/6 2 heard Carmo, 5/7 2 heard, 6/7 4 heard Serra da Canastra, 15/7 2 heard Chapada dos Guimarães, 16/7 1 seen (finally) Cuiabá-Poconé.

Wattled Jacana Jacana jacana 25/6 1 Carmo, 26/6 4 Sooretama, 17-21/7 5-25 daily Transpantaneira.

Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis fairly common in open areas and wetlands.

Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus 12/7 3 Macambaba Road.

Collared Plover Charadrius collaris 12/7 2 Macambaba Road, 19/7 2, 20/7 1 pair with chick Transpantaneira.

South American Snipe Gallinago paraguaiae 30/6 2 Pindobas IV, 21/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres 12/7 1 Macambaba Road.

Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus 12/7 1 subad. Arraial do Cabo.

Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus 13/7 2 second-year birds Rio de Janeiro.

Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus 12/7 c. 200 Macambaba Road/Arraial do Cabo, 13/7 20 Rio de Janeiro.

Cayenne Tern Thalasseus (sandvicensis) eurygnata 12/7 2 Arraial do Cabo.

Royal Tern Thalasseus maximus 12/7 1 Macambaba Road.

South American Tern Sterna hirundinacea 12/7 c. 150 Arraial do Cabo, 13/7 at least 1 Rio de Janeiro. All birds were in breeding plumage.

Yellow-billed Tern Sterna superciliaris 19/7 c. 10 Transpantaneira.

Large-billed Tern Phaetusa simplex 17/7 1, 19/7 4 Transpantaneira.

Black Skimmer Rynchops nigra 18-20/7 2 daily Transpantaneira.

Rock Dove Columba livia domest. common in towns and cities.

Scaled Pigeon Columba speciosa 26/6 2 heard Sooretama, 16/7 3 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Picazuro Pigeon Columba picazuro fairly common to common in open areas. Most birds were seen at Serra da Canastra and in the Pantanal.

Plumbeous Pigeon Columba plumbea fairly common at forest sites in the southeast.

Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata 5/7 2 Serra da Canastra.

Plain-breasted Ground-Dove Columbina minuta 12/7 4 Macambaba Road.

Ruddy Ground-Dove Columbina talpacoti fairly common in open and semiopen areas.

Picui Ground-Dove Columbina picui 26/6 1 Sooretama, 18/7 4, 19/7 3, 20/7 3, 21/7 4 Transpantaneira.

Scaled Dove Scardafella squammata 3/7 5 Caraça, 6/7 c. 15, 7/7 a few Serra da Canastra, 17/7 1, 21/7 6 Transpantaneira.

Long-tailed Ground-Dove Uropelia campestris 18/7 4, 20/7 5, 21/7 2 Transpantaneira.

White-tipped Dove Leptotila verreauxi 25/6 2+1 heard Carmo, 26/6 1+2 heard, 27/6 a few heard Sooretama, 17-21/7 common in the Pantanal.

Hyacinth Macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus** 18-21/7 c. 85 Transpantaneira. YES! Many absolutely wonderful observations of this extraordinary bird! Probably fewer than 3000 individuals survive in the wild.

Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloroptera 15/7 c. 10, 16/7 3 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Blue-winged Macaw Propyrrhura macarana** 25/6 c. 10 Carmo, 27/6 2+1 heard, 28/6 2 heard Sooretama.

Yellow-collared Macaw Propyrrhura auricollis 19/7 5, 20/7 12 Transpantaneira.

Red-shouldered Macaw Diopsittaca nobilis 15/7 c. 15 Chapada dos Guimarães.

White-eyed Parakeet Aratinga leucophthalmus 25/6 7 Carmo, 3/7 c. 15 Caraça, 6/7 c. 10 Serra da Canastra, 16/7 12 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Peach-fronted Parakeet Aratinga aurea 4/7 c. 15 Serra do Cipó, 5/7 5, 6/7 c.10, 7/7 2 Serra da Canastra, 15/7 5 Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 2, 19/7 5, 21/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Nanday Parakeet Nandayus nenday 18/7 c. 60, 19/7 1, 20/7 c. 25 Transpantaneira.

Maroon-bellied Parakeet Pyrrhura frontalis 22/6 c.25, 23/6 at least 5 Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 7+heard, 30/6 c. 15 Pindobas IV, 1/7 c. 25, 2/7 c. 15 Nova Lombardia, 9/7 c. 20+heard, 10/7 c. 25+heard Itatiaia.

Maroon-faced Parakeet Pyrrhura leucotis leucotis 27/6 12 Sooretama.

Monk Parakeet Myiopsitta monachus 17/7 c. 30, 18/7 c. 20, 19/7 c. 300, 20/7 c. 100 Transpantaneira.

Blue-winged Parrotlet Forpus crassirostris 8/7 c. 20 Itatiaia, 11/7 4 Perequê.

Plain Parakeet Brotogeris tirica 24/6 9 Serra dos Orgãos, 26/6 c. 15, 27/6 c. 10, 28/6 c. 10 Sooretama, 1/7 heard Nova Lombardia, 11/7 3 Perequê.

Yellow-chevroned Parakeet Brotogeris chiriri 6/7 3 Serra da Canastra, 17-21/7 4-20 daily Transpantaneira.

Golden-tailed Parrotlet Touit surda** 24/6 2 heard Serra dos Orgãos. We would never have been able to identify these birds without Ricardo… [Are you certain they weren't Brown-backed Parrotlets, Touit melanonotus, which have been seen at Orgãos?]

Pileated Parrot Pionopsitta pileata* 23/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 9/7 4 Itatiaia.

Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus 26-28/6 2 heard daily Sooretama, of the isolated race reichenowi, 15/7 3, 16/7 c. 15 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Scaly-headed Parrot Pionus maximiliani 23/6 a few heard, 24/6 2+ heard Serra dos Orgãos, 25/6 2 Carmo, 1/7 5 Nova Lombardia, 6/7 1 Serra da Canastra, 9/7 6+ heard, 10/7 c. 10 Itatiaia, 11/7 a few Perequê, 19/7 c. 10, 20/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Red-browed Amazon Amazona rhodocorytha** 26/6 6, 27/6 7+ heard, 28/6 4 heard Sooretama.

Blue-fronted Amazon Amazona aestiva 17/7 c. 100, 18/7 c. 150, 19/7 c. 30, 20-21/7 c. 10 daily Transpantaneira.

Mealy Amazon Amazona farinosa 26/6 1, 27/6 4, 28/6 2 heard Sooretama.

Blue-bellied Parrot Triclaria malachitacea** 2/7 2 Nova Lombardia. A very rare bird here.

Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana seen in small numbers at most sites.

Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani coomon in open areas.

Guira Cuckoo Guira guira 22/6 1 Rio de Janeiro, 25/6 c. 12 Carmo, 26/6 1 Sooretama, 7/7 5 Serra da Canastra-Itatiaia, 8/7 1 Itatiaia, 12/7 c. 10 Macambaba Road, 15/7 8, 16/7 3 Chapada dos Guimarães, 17-21/7 common, with a maximum of 40 birds on 18/7, Transpantaneira.

Striped Cuckoo Tapera naevia 26/6 1 heard Sooretama, 19/7 2 heard, 20/7 1+1 heard Transpantaneira.

Barn Owl Tyto alba 26/6 1 heard Sooretama.

Tropical Screech-Owl Otus choliba 26/6 1 heard Sooretama, 8/7 1 heard Transpantaneira.

Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus 17/7 1, 18/7 2 heard Transpantaneira.

Mottled Owl Strix virgata 2/7 1 heard Nova Lombardia.

Spectacled Owl Pulsatrix perspicillata 19/7 1 heard Transpantaneira.

Tawny-browed Owl Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana 22/6 2 heard, 23/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 27-28/6 2 heard, 27/6 1 spotlighted Sooretama, 2/7 2-3 heard Nova Lombardia, 10/7 1 heard Itatiaia.

Brazilian Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium minutissimum 27/6 1 heard Sooretama, 2/7 2 heard Nova Lombardia.

Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium brasilianum 4/7 1 Serra do Cipó, 14/7 1 heard, 15/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães, 17/7 1+1 heard, 18/7 1 heard, 19/7 1 heard Transpantaneira.

Burrowing Owl Athene cunicularia 26/6 1 N. Linhares, 26/6 1, 27/6 1 Sooretama, 8/7 1 Itatiaia, 12/7 1 Macambaba Road.

Band-tailed Nighthawk Nyctiprogne leucopyga 17/7 5 Rio Clarinho, Transpantaneira.

Nacunda Nighthawk Podager nacunda 19/7 c. 120, 20/7 at least 100 Transpantaneira.

Common Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis 26/6 2+1 heard, 27/6 25+, 28/6 10+ Sooretama, 17/7 1 Transpantaneira.

White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris 22/6 c. 20 Rio de Janeiro-Teresópolis, 25/6 c. 10 N. Vitória, 11/7 1 Perequê, 12/7 c. 30 ex. Arraial do Cabo.

Biscutate Swift Streptoprocne biscutata 15/7 c. 25 Chapada dos Guimarães. A flock of Streptoprone swifts at Serra do Cipó 4/7 might well have been this species.

Gray-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris 26-28/6 common Sooretama, 1/7 c. 5, 2/7 c. 25 Nova Lombardia, 11/7 c. 10 Perequê.

Saw-billed Hermit Ramphodon naevius* [Photo] 24/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 1/7 1 male Nova Lombardia.

Hairy Hermit Glaucis hirsuta 30/6 2 Santa Teresa.

Scale-throated Hermit Phaethornis eurynome 22/6 1+1 heard, 23/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 2 Pindobas IV, 30/6 1 Santa Teresa, 1-2/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 9/7 3 Itatiaia.

Planalto Hermit Phaethornis pretrei 30/6 2 Santa Teresa, 6/7 2, 7/7 2 Serra dos Orgãos, 15/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Buff-bellied Hermit Phaethornis subochraceus 19/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Minute Hermit Phaethornis idaliae 27/6 2 females+1 heard, 28/6 1 female Sooretama.

Cinnamon-throated Hermit Phaethornis nattereri 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Sombre Hummingbird Campylopterus cirrochloris 30/6 10-15 Santa Teresa, 1/7 a few Nova Lombardia.

Swallow-tailed Hummingbird Campylopterus macrourus 22/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 30/6 c. 7 Santa Teresa, 3/7 1 Caraça, 5/7 1, 6/7 2 Serra da Canastra, 21/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Black Jacobin Florisuga fusca [Photo] 29/6 1 Pindobas IV, 30/6 c. 25 Santa Teresa, 1/7 1 female Nova Lombardia, 9/7 3, 10/7 2 Itatiaia.

White-vented Violetear Colibri serrirostris 30/6 at least 5 Santa Teresa, 4/7 1+c. 5 heard Serra do Cipó, 5/7 c. 5+c. 5 heard, 6/7 c. 5 heard Serra da Canastra, 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Plovercrest Stephanoxis lalandi lalandi [Photo] 23/6 6 Serra dos Orgãos, 8/7 1 male Itatiaia. Beautiful males!

Frilled Coquette Lophornis magnificus 30/6 2 males, 1 female Santa Teresa, 1/7 2 males, 2 females, 2/7 1 male, 2 females Nova Lombardia, 9/7 1 male, 1 female Itatiaia. Superb hummer!

Glittering-bellied Emerald Chlorostilbon aureoventris pucherani 3/7 1 female Caraça, 4/7 1 male Serra do Cipó.

Fork-tailed Woodnymph Thalurania furcata 7/7 1 male Serra da Canastra, 20/7 1 male Transpantaneira.

Violet-capped Woodnymph Thalurania glaucopis 24/6 4 Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 1-2 males, 30/6 1 female Pindobas IV, 30/6 c. 10 Santa Teresa, 1/7 c. 15, 2/7 c. 5 Nova Lombardia, 9/7 7, 10/7 c. 10 Itatiaia, 11/7 c. 5 Perequê.

Rufous-throated Sapphire Hylocharis sapphirina 26/6 1 male Sooretama.

White-throated Hummingbird Leucochloris albicollis 24/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 30/6 1 Pindobas IV and c. 10 Santa Teresa, 1/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 8/7 c.10 Itatiaia.

White-tailed Goldenthroat Polytmus guainumbi 4/7 2 Serra do Cipó, 5/7 1, 6/7 1 Serra da Canastra, 21/7 1 female Transpantaneira.

Versicolored Emerald Agyrtria versicolor versicolor 30/6 1 Santa Teresa, 11/7 2 Perequê, 17/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Glittering-throated Emerald Polyerata fimbriata 30/6 c. 10 ex. Santa Teresa, 17/7 2, 20/7 2, 21/7 10-15 Transpantaneira.

Sapphire-spangled Emerald Polyerata lactea 30/6 at least 5 Santa Teresa.

Brazilian Ruby Clytolaema rubricauda 22/6 c. 10, 23/6 c. 10, 24/6 1 male Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 1 male, 30/6 1 female Pindobas IV, 1/7 c. 8, 2/7 4 Nova Lombardia, 3/7 1 male Caraça, 9/7 1 male, 10/7 3 Itatiaia.

Hyacinth Visorbearer Augastes scutatus* 4/7 c. 10 Serra do Cipó. Beautiful males!

Long-billed Starthroat Heliomaster longirostris 15/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Stripe-breasted Starthroat Heliomaster squamosus 6/7 1 Vargem Bonita, Serra da Canastra.

Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophum 4/7 1 female Serra do Cipó.

Amethyst Woodstar Calliphlox amethystina 30/6 1 female Santa Teresa, 3/7 1 ad. male Caraça.

White-tailed Trogon Trogon viridis 26/6 1 female+2 heard, 27/6 1 female, 28/6 2 females+ 2 heard Sooretama, 2/7 3 Nova Lombardia.

Black-throated Trogon Trogon rufus 27/6 1 male+1 heard, 28/6 1 Sooretama, 1/7 2 males +1 heard Nova Lombardia, 9/7 1 Itatiaia.

Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura 22/6 2, 23/6 2 Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 2, 30/6 1 Pindobas IV, 7/7 1 heard Serra da Canastra, 9/7 2+a few heard Itatiaia.

Blue-crowned Trogon Trogon curucui 17/7 1 male, 18/7 1 male+1 heard, 20/7 1 male Transpantaneira.

American Pygmy Kingfisher Chloroceryle aenea 17/7 1, 19/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana 17-21/7 c. 5 daily Transpantaneira.

Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona 15/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães, 17-21/7 fairly common Transpantaneira.

Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquata single birds at several places in the southeast, common in the Pantanal.

Rufous-capped Motmot Barypthengus ruficapillus 10/7 1 Itatiaia.

Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus momota 15/7 2 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda 26/6 6, 27/6 1 heard Sooretama, 11/7 1 Perequê, 15/7 1, 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 1, 19/7 c. 5, 20/7 3 Transpantaneira.

Three-toed Jacamar Jacamaralcyon tridactyla** 25/6 1 pair Carmo.

Buff-bellied Puffbird Notharcus (macrorhynchus) swainsoni 27/6 1 Sooretama, 11/7 1 Perequê. Splitted by Sibley.

White-eared Puffbird Nystalus chacuru 5/7 2 Serra da Canastra, 15/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons 16/7 2 Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 1, 19/7 8, 20/7 4 Transpantaneira.

Swallow-wing Chelidoptera tenebrosa 27/6 3 Sooretama.

Black-necked Aracari Pteroglossus aracari aracari 27/6 c. 10, 28/6 2 Sooretama.

Chestnut-eared Aracari Pteroglossus castanotis 15/7 2, 16/7 2 Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 4, 20/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Saffron Toucanet Baillonius bailloni* 1/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 10/7 4 Itatiaia.

Spot-billed Toucanet Selenidera maculirostris 23/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 1 female Pindobas IV, 1/7 1 pair+4 heard, 2/7 2+2 heard Nova Lombardia, 9/7 3+1 heard, 10/7 2+1 heard Itatiaia.

Channel-billed Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus 26/6 1 heard, 27/6 3 Sooretama, 29/6 1, 30/6 a few Pindobas IV, 2/7 2 heard Nova Lombardia.

Red-breasted Toucan Ramphastos dicolorus 9/7 1, 10/7 1 Itatiaia.

Toco Toucan Ramphastos toco 5/7 3, 6/7 5 Serra da Canastra, 17/7 2, 18/7 2, 19/7 1, 20/7 2 Transpantaneira.

White-wedged Piculet Picumnus minutissimus 15/7 2, 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

White-barred Piculet Picumnus cirrhatus 25/6 1-2 Carmo, 26/6 2+2 heard Sooretama, 3/7 1 Caraça, 9/7 1 male, 10/7 1+1 heard Itatiaia, 11/7 1-2 Perequê.

Campo Flicker Colaptes campestris 4/7 2 Serra do Cipó, 5/7 4, 6/7 1 heard Serra da Canastra, 12/7 1 Arraial do Cabo, 16/7 2 Chapada dos Guimarães, 17/7 1 Cuiabá- Poconé, 20/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Green-barred Woodpecker Colaptes melanochloros 25/6 1 Carmo, 6/7 1 Serra da Canastra, 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Golden-green Woodpecker Piculus chrysochloros 18/7 1 male Transpantaneira.

Yellow-browed Woodpecker Piculus aurulentus* 22/6 1, 23/6 4 Serra dos Orgãos, 3/7 1 Caraça, 8/7 1, 9/7 2 heard Itatiaia.

Yellow-throated Woodpecker Piculus flavigula erythropis 27/6 1 male Sooretama, 1/7 1 male, 2/7 2 Nova Lombardia. Likely to be split in near future.

Cream-colored Woodpecker Celeus flavus 18/7 1 pair Rio Clarinho, Transpantaneira. A surprise!

Blond-crested Woodpecker Celeus flavescens 28/6 1 pair Sooretama. Incredible birds!

Pale-crested Woodpecker Celeus lugubris 15/7 1 male Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 1, 19/7 1 female, 20/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus 21/7 1 female Transpantaneira.

Yellow-fronted Woodpecker Melanerpes flavifrons 26/6 1, 27/6 1 heard Sooretama, 10/7 2 Itatiaia, 11/7 1 Perequê. A beautiful woodpecker.

White Woodpecker Melanerpes candidus 6/7 5 Serra da Canastra, 19/7 3 Transpantaneira.

White-spotted Woodpecker Veniliornis spilogaster 8/7 2, 10/7 2 Itatiaia.

Little Woodpecker Veniliornis passerinus 7/7 1 male Serra da Canastra, 17/7 1 male, 19/7 3, 20/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Red-stained Woodpecker Veniliornis affinis 26/6 2, 27/6 4, 28/6 5 Sooretama.

Yellow-eared Woodpecker Veniliornis maculifrons 24/6 1 male Serra dos Orgãos, 30/6 2 Pindobas IV, 1/7 1, 2/7 1 Nova Lombardia.

Crimson-crested Woodpecker Campephilus melanoleucos 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Red-necked Woodpecker Campephilus rubricollis 16/6 1 pair Chapada dos Guimarães.

Robust Woodpecker Campephilus robustus 28/6 1 pair Sooretama, 30/6 1 drumming Pindobas IV, 1-2/7 1 drumming Nova Lombardia, 10/7 1 Itatiaia.

Band-tailed Hornero Furnarius figulus 25/6 3 Carmo, 30/6 2 Pindobas IV.

Pale-legged Hornero Furnarius leucopus 17/7 1, 18/7 6, 20/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Rufous Hornero Furnarius rufus rather few seen in the southeast, but common in the Pantanal.

Chotoy Spinetail Schoeniophylax phryganophila 18/7 2, 19/7 3 Transpantaneira.

Pale-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis albescens 6/7 2 Serra da Canastra, 15/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Spix's Spinetail Synallaxis spixi 1/7 2, 2/7 3 Nova Lombardia, 3/7 3+3 heard Caraça.

Rufous-capped Spinetail Synallaxis ruficapilla 22/6 1+2 heard, 23/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 10/7 2 Itatiaia.

White-lored Spinetail Synallaxis albilora 17/7 3, 18/7 3, 19/7 10, 20/7 2+4 heard Transpantaneira.

Gray-bellied Spinetail Synallaxis cinerascens 9/7 2 Itatiaia.

Pallid Spinetail Cranioleuca pallida 22/6 2 ex., 23/6 4 ex.+1 hörd Serra dos Orgãos, 3/7 1 ex. Caraça, 8/7 4 ex. Itatiaia.

Rusty-backed Spinetail Cranioleuca vulpina 18/7 1 ex. Transpantaneira.

Yellow-chinned Spinetail Certhiaxis cinnamomea 18/7 4+1 heard, 19/7 4+2 heard, 20/7 c. 5+2 heard, 21/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Itatiaia Spinetail Oreophylax moreirae 8/7 5 Itatiaia. Recently found also at Caraça.

Cipó Canastero Asthenes luizae** 4/7 at least 2 Serra do Cipó. Discovered in 1985 and described in 1990!

Striated Softtail Thripophaga macroura** 28/6 4 Sooretama. Occurs at very few sites.

Common Thornbird Phacellodomus rufifrons 25/6 c. 10 Carmo, 2/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 3/7 c. 5 Caraça, 18/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Greater Thornbird Phacellodomus ruber 18/7 4 Transpantaneira.

Gray-crested Cacholote Pseudoseisura unirufa 17/7 2, 18/7 1, 20/7 3 Transpantaneira. Recently split in two species, the other being called Rufous or Caatinga Cacholote

Streaked Xenops Xenops rutilans 22/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 25/6 4 Carmo, 26/6 2 Sooretama, 29/6 1, 30/6 3 Pindobas IV, 1/7 3, 2/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 7/7 1 Serra da Canastra, 10/7 3 Itatiaia, 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Plain Xenops Xenops minutus minutus 27/6 1 Sooretama, 11/7 2 Perequê.

Sharp-billed Treehunter Heliobletus contaminatus 22/6 1, 23/6 2 Serra dos Orgãos, 8/7 2, 9/7 1 Itatiaia.

White-browed Foliage-gleaner Anabacerthia amaurotis* 22/6 6, 23/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 9/7 3, 10/7 3 Itatiaia.

Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner Syndactyla rufosuperciliata 8/7 1 Itatiaia.

Pale-browed Treehunter Cichlocolaptes leucophrus 22/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 27/6 1+1 heard Sooretama.

Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner Philydor rufus 22/6 1, 24/6 1+1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 1/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 3/7 3 Caraça, 9/7 at least 5, 10/7 c. 15 Itatiaia.

Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner Philydor lichtensteini 1/7 4, 2/7 1 Nova Lombardia.

Black-capped Foliage-gleaner Philydor atricapillus 24/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 28/6 1 heard Sooretama, 1/7 c. 7, 2/7 a few Nova Lombardia, 11/7 2 Perequê.

White-collared Foliage-gleaner Anabazenops fuscus 29/6 1 heard, 30/6 2 Pindobas IV, 9/7 1+3 heard Itatiaia.

White-eyed Foliage-gleaner Automolus leucophthalmus 1/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 3/7 1 Caraça.

Rufous-breasted Leaftosser Sclerurus scansor 22/6 2+1 heard, 23/6 1+2 heard, 24/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos.

Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper Lochmias nematura nematura 22/6 1+4 heard, 23/6 1+4 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 3/7 1+1 heard Caraça, 5/7 2, 6/7 1+1 heard Serra da Canastra, 10/7 2 heard Itatiaia, 15/7 2 heard Chapada dos Guimarães.

Plain-winged Woodcreeper Dendrocincla turdina 27/6 1, 28/6 3 Sooretama, 1/7 1 Nova Lombardia.

Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus fairly common at virtually every forest site. Sylviellus in the southeast is a possible split.

Planalto Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes platyrostris 22/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 9/7 1 Itatiaia, 11/7 1 Perequê.

White-throated Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes albicollis 22/6 1 heard, 23/6 1+1 heard, 24/6 2 Serra dos Orgãos, 30/6 1 heard Pindobas IV.

Great Rufous Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes major 18/7 1, 20/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Straight-billed Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus picus 15/7 1, 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 1, 19/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Buff-throated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus guttatus 27/6 4 Sooretama.

Scaled Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes squamatus 25/6 1 Carmo, 26-28/6 1 daily Sooretama, 30/6 1 Pindobas IV, 1/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 8/7 3, 9/7 c. 5, 10/7 3 Itatiaia.

Lesser Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes fuscus 22/6 2+1 heard, 24/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 27/6 2, 28/6 3 Sooretama, 1/7 5, 2/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 9/7 2, 10/7 1 Itatiaia.

Narrow-billed Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes angustirostris 6/7 1-2 Serra da Canastra, 17/7 2, 18-21/7 1 daily Transpantaneira.

Red-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus trochilirostris 17/7 1, 18/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Black-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus falcularius 23/6 1+1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 2976 1 heard Pindobas IV, 2/7 1 at nest hole (young heard) Nova Lombardia, 9/7 1 Itatiaia.

Tufted Antshrike Mackenziaena severa 30/6 1 male Pindobas IV.

Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea 22/6 1 heard, 23/6 1 male, 1 female+4 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 1 heard Pindobas IV.

Great Antshrike Taraba major 18/7 2+1 heard, 19/7 2 males, 20/7 1 male+2 heard, 21/7 2 heard Transpantaneira.

Barred Antshrike Thamnophilus doliatus 18/7 3, 19/7 2 males, 20/7 2 heard Transpantaneira.

Chestnut-backed Antshrike Thamnophilus palliatus 25/6 1 male Carmo.

Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike Thamnophilus ambiguus 26/6 1 male+4 heard, 27/6 1 male+ 2 heard, 28/6 2 heard Sooretama.

Variable Antshrike Thamnophilus caerulescens 22/6 1 pair, 23/6 1 pair +2 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 a few Pindobas IV, 3/7 4 Caraça, 5/7 3, 6/7 1 male Serra da Canastra, 8-10/7 10-15 daily Itatiaia.

Cinereous Antshrike Thamnomanes caesius caesius 27/6 1 heard Sooretama.

Plain Antvireo Dysithamnus mentalis 1/7 1 female Nova Lombardia, 9/7 c. 10, 3/7 1 Caraça, 10/7 1 male Itatiaia, 15/7 2 Chapada dos Guimarães, 19/7 1 female Transpantaneira.

Spot-breasted Antvireo Dysithamnus stictothorax* 29/6 2 Pindobas IV, 1/7 5+5 heard, 2/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 10/7 1 male Itatiaia, 11/7 3 Perequê.

Rufous-backed Antvireo Dysithamnus xanthopterus 22/6 3 +3 heard, 23/6 3 +c. 5 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 9/7 3 Itatiaia.

Plumbeous Antvireo Dysithamnus plumbeus** 27/6 3 pairs, 28/6 3 females +3 heard Sooretama.

Large-billed Antwren Herpsilochmus longirostris 15/7 2 pairs, 16/7 1 male Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 3, 20/7 2 heard Transpantaneira.

Rufous-winged Antwren Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus 26/6 1 male, 27/6 1 heard Sooretama, 11/7 1 Perequê.

Star-throated Antwren Myrmotherula gularis 22/6 1 male+2 heard, 23/6 1 heard, 24/6 several heard Serra dos Orgãos, 8/7 1 heard Itatiaia.

White-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula axillaris luctuosus 26/6 1 hane, 2 honor, 27/6 3 ex., 28/6 4 honor Sooretama. Possible split (Gray-flanked Antwren).

Salvadori's Antwren Myrmotherula minor** 1/7 1 pair Nova Lombardia.

Band-tailed Antwren Myrmotherula urosticta** 26/6 1 male, 27/6 1 pair+1 female, 28/6 3 Sooretama. Survives in small numbers at a few sites.

Streak-capped Antwren Terenura maculata 24/6 1+c. 5 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 9/7 2 Itatiaia, 11/7 3 Perequê.

Scaled Antbird Drymophila squamata 28/6 1 male Sooretama, 11/7 3 Perequê.

Ferruginous Antbird Drymophila ferruginea 30/6 3+1 heard Pindobas IV, 1/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 9/7 c. 15, 10/7 1 heard Itatiaia, 11/7 2 males Perequê.

Bertoni's Antbird Drymophila rubricollis 10/7 1 singing male Itatiaia.

Rufous-tailed Antbird Drymophila genei* 22/6 2, 23/6 6+c. 5 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 8/7 a few Itatiaia.

Ochre-rumped Antbird Drymophila ochropyga* 29/6 2+1 heard, 30/6 4 heard Pindobas IV, 3/7 1+3 heard Caraça, 10/7 1 heard Itatiaia.

Rusty-backed Antwren Formicivora rufa 15/7 1 male Chapada dos Guimarães, 20/7 1 pair Transpantaneira.

Serra Antwren Formicivora serrana* 3/7 2 pairs Caraça.

Restinga Antwren Formicivora littoralis** 12/7 1 pair+2 heard Macambaba Road. Described in 1990 and limited to restinga woodlands east of Rio de Janeiro.

Black-hooded Antwren Formicivora erythronotos** 11/7 1 pair+2 heard Perequê. This is an extremely rare bird, with a world population possibly well below 100 birds. About 7 pairs are resident at Perequê.

White-shouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera 23/6 2 heard, 24/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 10/7 1 pair+2 heard Itatiaia.

Band-tailed Antbird Hypocnemoides maculicauda 17/7 1 pair, 18/7 1 pair Rio Clarinho, Transpantaneira.

White-bibbed Antbird Myrmeciza loricata 24/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 1 male Pindobas IV, 1/7 2+5 heard, 2/7 a few Nova Lombardia, 3/7 1 female+3 heard Caraça.

Rufous-capped Antthrush Formicarius colma 26/6 1 heard, 27/6 1 male+3 heard Sooretama, 11/7 1 heard Perequê.

Rufous-tailed Antthrush Chamaeza ruficauda 23/6 1+3 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 8-10/7 3 heard daily Itatiaia.

Cryptic Antthrush Chamaeza meruloides 29/6 2+2 heard, 30/6 2 heard Pindobas IV, 1-2/7 1 heard Nova Lombardia, 9-10/7 3 heard Itatiaia.

Short-tailed Antthrush Chamaeza campanisona campanisona 1-2/7 3 heard Nova Lombardia.

Variegated Antpitta Grallaria varia imperator/intercedens 30/6 1 heard Pindobas IV, 2/7 2 heard Nova Lombardia, 9/7 1 heard, 10/7 2 heard Itatiaia.

Rufous Gnateater Conopophaga lineata 22/6 2 heard, 23/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 2 Pindobas IV, 3/7 1 Caraça, 10/7 1 +1 heard Itatiaia.

Black-cheeked Gnateater Conopophaga melanops 28/6 1 male Sooretama.

Slaty Bristlefront Merulaxis ater* 10/7 1 heard Itatiaia.

Mouse-colored Tapaculo Scytalopus speluncae 22/6 1+2 heard, 23/6 c. 10 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 30/6 3 heard Pindobas IV, 8/7 3 heard, 9/7 3 heard, 10/7 1 heard Itatiaia.

White-breasted Tapaculo Scytalopus indigoticus 3/7 1 heard Caraça.

Brasília Tapaculo Scytalopus novacapitalis** 5/7 1 +2 heard Serra da Canastra.

Spotted Bamboowren Psilorhamphus guttatus* 30/6 1 male +1 heard Pindobas IV.

Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaenia flavogaster 25/6 4 Carmo, 26/6 1 heard Sooretama, 2/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 12/7 2 Macambaba Road.

Highland Elaenia Elaenia obscura 23/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 5/7 c. 5 Serra da Canastra. Several unidentified Elaenias were probably this species.

Plain-crested Elaenia Elaenia cristata 4/7 c. 15 Serra do Cipó, 5/7 1, 6/7 2 Serra da Canastra.

Lesser Elaenia Elaenia chiriquensis 15/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Olivaceous Elaenia Elaenia mesoleuca 2/7 1 Nova Lombardia. Probably more seen.

Southern Scrub-Flycatcher Sublegatus modestus 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Gray Elaenia Myiopagis caniceps 26/6 1 Sooretama.

Mouse-colored Tyrannulet Phaeomyias murina 15/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet Camptostoma obsoletum 4/7 2 Serra do Cipó, 12/7 1 Macambaba Road.

White-lored Tyrannulet Ornithion inerme 26/6 1 Sooretama.

Gray-capped Tyrannulet Phyllomyias griseocapilla* 8/7 several Itatiaia.

Planalto Tyrannulet Phyllomyias fasciatus 25/6 2 Carmo, 3/7 4 Caraça, 7/7 3 Serra da Canastra, 15/7 2, 16/7 3 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Rough-legged Tyrannulet Phyllomyias burmeisteri 22/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 1/7 1 Nova Lombardia.

Plain Tyrannulet Inezia inornata 18/7 2, 19/7 c. 10, 20/7 c. 5 Transpantaneira.

White-crested Tyrannulet Serpophaga subcristata 3/7 3 Caraça, 5/7 2 Serra da Canastra, 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães, 19/7 a few, 20/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Sooty Tyrannulet Serpophaga nigricans 2/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 5/7 1 Serra da Canastra.

Gray-backed Tachuri Polystictus superciliaris* 4/7 1 Serra do Cipó.

Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant Euscarthmus meloryphus 19/7 1, 20/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Yellow Tyrannulet Capsiempsis flaveola 25/6 1 Carmo.

Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet Phylloscartes ventralis 22/6 5, 23/6 2 +1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 3/7 c. 10 Caraça, 8/7 3, 9/7 2, 10/7 1 Itatiaia.

Phylloscartes sp. nov. ?? 30/6 2 Pindobas IV. According to Ricardo and Ana there are supposed to be two vocally different forms of Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulets at Pindobas, one of them possibly representing an undescribed species. The birds we saw and heard matched Ana's recording. Some people are very skeptical of this being a new species, though, including Fernando Pacheo.

Oustalet's Tyrannulet Phylloscartes oustaleti** 1/7 2, 2/7 1 Nova Lombardia.

São Paulo Tyrannulet Phylloscartes paulistus** 11/7 at least 2 Perequê. Surprise!

Serra do Mar Tyrannulet Phylloscartes difficilis* 22/6 1+1 heard, 23/6 3+1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 8/7 1, 10/7 1 Itatiaia.

Sepia-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon amaurocephalus 22/6 1 heard, 24/6 4 Serra dos Orgãos, 25/6 1 Carmo, 26/6 1 heard, 28/6 1 Sooretama, 1/7 2-3, 2/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 3/7 2 Caraça, 9/7 2, 10/7 2 Itatiaia.

Gray-hooded Flycatcher Mionectes rufiventris 30/6 1 Pindobas IV, 7/7 1 Serra da Canastra, 10/7 1 Itatiaia.

Eared Pygmy-Tyrant Myiornis auricularis 22/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 26/6 5 Sooretama, 29/6 2, 30/6 3 Pindobas IV, 1/7 2 heard Nova Lombardia, 10/7 3 Itatiaia.

Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer 17/7 2, 18/7 3, 19/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus striaticollis 19/7 1, 20/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus furcatus** 11/7 2 Perequê.

Eye-ringed Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus orbitatus* 24/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos.

Hangnest Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus nidipendulus* 2/7 3 Nova Lombardia, 3/7 2 Caraça, 12/7 1 Macambaba Road.

Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant Hemitriccus diops 29/6 3+c. 5 heard, 30/6 1+ a few heard Pindobas IV, 1/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 9/7 1Itatiaia.

Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum plumbeiceps 3/7 1+1 heard Caraça.

Common Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum cinereum 5/7 1 Serra da Canastra.

Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum poliocephalum 25/6 2+1 heard Carmo, 2/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 7/7 1 Serra da Canastra, 11/7 1 Perequê.

White-throated Spadebill Platyrinchus mystaceus 6/7 1 Serra da Canastra, 9/7 2 + 2 heard, 10/7 1 Itatiaia.

Russet-winged Spadebill Platyrinchus leucoryphus** 1/7 1 Nova Lombardia.

Yellow-olive Flycatcher Tolmomyias sulphurescens seen in small numbers at virtually all forest sites.

Gray-crowned Flycatcher Tolmomyias poliocephalus 26/6 1 Sooretama.

Yellow-breasted Flycatcher Tolmomyias flaviventris 26/6 5 Sooretama.

Olivaceous Flatbill Rhynchocyclus olivaceus olivaceus 27/6 2+2 heard Sooretama.

Large-headed Flatbill Ramphotrigon megacephala megacephala 9-10/7 1 Itatiaia.

Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher Miyobius barbatus mastacalis 24/6 2 Serra dos Orgãos

Black-tailed Flycatcher Myiobius atricaudus ridgwayi 29/6 1-2 Pindobas IV, 1/7 5, 2/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 11/7 1 Perequê.

Bran-colored Flycatcher Myiophobus fasciatus 1/7 1, 2/7 1 Nova Lombardia.

Tropical Pewee Contopus cinereus 27/6 1 Sooretama, 30/6 1 Pindobas IV, 1/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 9/7 1 Itatiaia.

Euler's Flycatcher Lathrotriccus euleri 20/7 1 Transpantaneria.

Fuscous Flycatcher Cnemotriccus fuscatus 26/6 1 Sooretama.

Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus 17/7 3, 18/7 5, 19/7 1 female, 20/7 4 Transpantaneira.

Swallow Flycatcher Hirundinea (ferruginea) bellicosa/pallidior 25/6 1 Carmo, 7/7 1 Serra da Canastra,10/7 5 Itatiaia, 11/7 1 Itatiaia-Perequê.

Gray Monjita Xolmis cinerea 5/7 2 Serra da Canastra, 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

White-rumped Monjita Xolmis velata 3/7 1 Caraça, 5/7 c. 10, 6/7 c. 5 Serra da Canastra, 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães, 17/7 2, 18/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Yellow-browed Tyrant Satrapa icterophrys 25/6 1 Carmo.

Cattle Tyrant Machetornis rixosus 25/6 1 N. Carmo, 6/7 1 Serra da Canastra, 11/7 1 Perequê-Rio de Janeiro, 17-21/7 fairly common Transpantaneira.

Shear-tailed Gray Tyrant Muscipipra vetula* 30/6 1 Pindobas IV, 8/7 1 Itatiaia.

Streamer-tailed Tyrant Gubernetes yetapa 25/6 2 N. Carmo.

Long-tailed Tyrant Colonia colonus 25/6 1 Carmo, 29/6 1, 30/6 3 Pindobas IV, 1/7 4 Nova Lombardia, 3/7 2 Caraça, 9/7 2 Itatiaia.

Blue-billed Black-Tyrant Knipolegus cyanirostris 8/7 3, 10/7 2 Itatiaia.

Velvety Black-Tyrant Knipolegus nigerrimus 3/7 4 Caraça, 8/7 c. 5 Itatiaia, 13/7 2 Corcovado, Rio de Janeiro.

Crested Black-Tyrant Knipolegus lophotes 3/7 2 Caraça, 5/7 c. 15, 6/7 6 Serra da Canastra, 8/7 1 Itatiaia, 15/7 2 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Black-backed Water-Tyrant Fluvicola albiventer 20/7 2, 21/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Masked Water-Tyrant Fluvicola nengeta nengeta 25/6 3 Carmo, 29/6 1 Pindobas IV, 6/7 2 Serra da Canastra, 9/7 2 Itatiaia, 11/7 1 Perequê-Rio de Janeiro, 12/7 2 Macambaba Road. The Masked Water-Tyrant must be two species, though no one seems to care!

White-headed Marsh-Tyrant Arundinicola leucocephala 7/7 1 male Serra da Canastra, 17-21/7 1-3 daily Transpantaneira.

Cock-tailed Tyrant Alectrurus tricolor* 5/7 1 male Serra da Canastra. The Cock-tailed Tyrant is normally absent from Serra da Canastra during the winter.

Gray-hooded Attila Attila rufus 24/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 28/6 1 Sooretama.

Rufous Casiornis Casiornis rufa 20/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Grayish Mourner Rhytipterna simplex simplex 26/6 6, 27/6 2, 28/6 4 Sooretama.

Brown-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus tyrannulus 25/6 1 Carmo, 3/7 2 Caraça, 15/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães, 19/7 1, 20/7 a few Transpantaneira. Also many unidentified Myiarchus flycatchers.

Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox 25/6 2 Carmo, 26/6 2 Sooretama, 5/7 2 Serra da Canastra, 18/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer 26/6 2 heard, 27/6 2 Sooretama.

Sirystes Sirystes sibilator 26/6 3+1 heard, 27/6 1 heard, 28/6 1 heard Sooretama, 29/6 1 heard, 30/6 1 Pindobas IV, 7/7 2 Serra da Canastra, 9/7 1 heard, 10/7 1 Itatiaia, 16/7 4 Chapada dos Guimarães. The Sirystes is a flock leader. Cherry-throated Tanagers are most often found in a flock led by Sirystes.

Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua seen in small numbers at many sites.

Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus fairy common to common.

Lesser Kiskadee Philohydor lictor 17/7 2, 18/7 4 Transpantaneira.

Rusty-margined Flycatcher Myiozetetes cayanensis 2/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 17-21/7 fairly common Transpantaneira.

Social Flycather Myiozetetes similis seen in small numbers at many sites, but not in the Pantanal.

Three-striped Flycatcher Conopias trivirgata trivirgata* 26/6 2 Sooretama.

Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus fairly common in open habitats.

White-winged Becard Pachyramphus polychopterus 25/6 1 female Carmo.

Black-capped Becard Pachyramphus marginatus marginatus 27/6 1 male, 28/6 5 Sooretama.

Chestnut-crowned Becard Pachyramphus castaneus 28/6 1 Sooretama, 30/6 1 Pindobas IV, 3/7 1 Caraça, 9/7 2, 10/7 6 Itatiaia.

Crested Becard Pachyramphus validus 24/6 1 female Serra dos Orgãos, 26/6 1 pair, 27/6 1 female, 28/6 2 pairs Sooretama.

Black-crowned Tityra Tityra inquisitor 16/7 2 males, 1 female Chapada dos Guimarães.

Black-tailed Tityra Tityra cayana 27/6 1 pair, 28/6 1 male Sooretama, 1/7 1 male Nova Lombardia,19/7 1 male Transpantaneira.

Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata 16/7 1 male, 1 female Chapada dos Guimarães.

Thrush-like Mourner Schiffornis turdinus turdinus 27/6 1 male+1 heard, 28/6 3 heard Sooretama. Reacts very strongly to play-back.

Greenish Mourner Schiffornis virescens 29/6 1 male +1 heard, 30/6 1 heard Pindobas IV, 1/7 2 heard, 2/7 1 heard Nova Lombardia, 9/7 1 +3 heard, 10/7 c. 5 heard Itatiaia.

Wied's Tyrant-Manakin Neopelma aurifrons 1/7 3+1 heard Nova Lombardia.

Black-capped Piprites Piprites pileatus** 8/7 1 male Itatiaia. [Very rare and infrequently observed at Itatiaia.]

Blue Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata fairly common at most forest sites in the southeast. Beautiful bird!

Helmeted Manakin Antilophia galeata 6/7 1 female, 7/7 1 male Serra da Canastra.

White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus gutturotus 26/6 1 ad. male+c. 5 female/imm. Sooretama, 7/7 1 female Serra da Canastra, 11/7 1 ad. male, 4 females/imm.+2 heard Perequê, 12/7 1 female Macambaba Road.

Pin-tailed Manakin Ilicura militaris 30/6 3 females Pindobas IV, 1/7 1 ad. male, 2 females +2 heard Nova Lombardia, 7/7 1 female Serra da Canastra.

Red-headed Manakin Pipra rubrocapilla 26/6 1 male Sooretama.

Band-tailed Manakin Pipra fasciicauda 15/7 1 male, 16/7 1 female Chapada dos Guimarães.

Sharpbill Oxyruncus cristatus 24/6 2 Serra dos Orgãos, 30/6 5+1 heard Pindobas IV, 1/7 3+3-4 heard, 2/7 1 heard Nova Lombardia, 9/7 1 heard, 10/7 3+2 heard Itatiaia.

Swallow-tailed Cotinga Phibalura flavirostris* 3/7 14 ex. Caraça. Quite a flock! Apparently it's not rare with congregations like this in the winter.

Hooded Berryeater Carpornis cucullatus* 22/6 1 male+c. 5 heard, 23/6 4 heard, 24/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 3 heard, 30/6 2 heard Pindobas IV, 2/7 2 heard Nova Lombardia.

Black-headed Berryeater Carpornis melanocephalus** 27/6 1 male, 28/6 1 male+ 1 heard Sooretama. A quite rare bird. [The most reliable site is Ilha do Cardoso, SP.]

Cinnamon-vented Piha Lipaugus lanioides** 30/6 1 Pindobas IV, 1/7 1 heard Nova Lombardia.

Black-and-gold Cotinga Tijuca atra* 22/6 3-4 heard, 23/6 3 ad. males, 2 females+3 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 8/7 3 heard, 10/7 1 heard Itatiaia.

Gray-winged Cotinga Tijuca condita** 23/6 1 heard Serra dos Orgãos. This rare and very local species was described in 1982. [Allow at least 3 days to see one. There is poor visibility from the trail due to tall vegetation, and it's impossible to bushwack to fruiting trees away from the trail.]

Bare-throated Bellbird Procnias nudicollis* 1/7 1 ad. male, 1 juv. male, 1 female+ at least 5 heard, 2/7 a few heard Nova Lombardia, 11/7 1 female Perequê.

Red-ruffed Fruitcrow Pyroderus scutatus 3/7 1 Caraça.

Brown-chested Martin Progne tapera 26/6 3 Sooretama.

Gray-breasted Martin Progne modesta fairly common.

White-winged Swallow Tachycineta albiventer 4/7 2 Lagoa Santa, N. Belo Horizonte, 5/7 2 Serra do Cipó-Belo Horizonte, 17-21/7 1-10 daily Transpantaneira.

White-rumped Swallow Tachycineta leucorrhoa 19/7 c. 100 Transpantaneira.

Blue-and-white Swallow Notiochelidon cyanoleua fairly common.

Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis locally fairly common to common.

Yellowish Pipit Anthus lutescens 12/7 1+2 heard Macambaba Road, 19/7 1 heard, 20/7 c. 20, 21/7 1+1 heard Transpantaneira.

Ochre-breasted Pipit Anthus nattereri?? One bird almost certainly of this species was flushed in tall grass at Serra da Canastra 6/7. However, we feel that the observation circumstances are too poor for a definite identification.

Black-capped Donacobius Donacobius atricapillus 17/7 c. 10, 18/7 c. 10, 20/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Thrush-like Wren Campylorhynchus turdinus 26/6 1 heard, 27/6 2 heard, 28/6 2+2 heard Sooretama, 15/7 1 heard, 16/7 2 heard Chapada dos Guimarães, 17/7 1+2 heard, 19/7 a few heard Transpantaneira.

Moustached Wren Thryothorus genibarbis 26/6 2+2 heard, 27/6 2 heard Sooretama, 15/7 1 heard, 16/7 3 heard Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 2 heard, 20/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Buff-breasted Wren Thryothorus leucotis 19/7 c.10, 20/7 c. 5+several heard Transpantaneira. Lars made several playback experiments with voices of both Fawn-breasted and Buff-breasted Wrens. No bird reacted on the Fawn-breasted but several reacted quite strongly on the Buff-breasted Wren. We suspect that visiting birders sometimes make misidentifications of Buff-breasted Wrens and call them Fawn-breasted, since Fawn-breasted is the species noted in many trip reports. It would be interesting to know the real status of the Fawn-breasted Wren in northern Pantanal.

Long-billed Wren Thryothorus longirostris 25/6 1+1 heard Carmo, 28/6 1 heard Sooretama.

House Wren Troglodytes aedon fairly common.

Chalk-browed Mockingbird Mimus saturninus fairly common in open areas.

Rufous-brown Solitaire Cichlopsis leucogenys* 1/7 1 Nova Lombardia.

Yellow-legged Thrush Platycichla flavipes 29/6 2, 30/6 2 males Pindobas IV, 1/7 c. 20, 2/7 c. 5 Nova Lombardia, 8/7 c. 20 Itatiaia.

Rufous-bellied Thrush Turdus rufiventris fairly common.

Creamy-bellied Thrush Turdus amaurochalinus 11/7 1 Perequê, 12/7 several Macambaba Road, 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Pale-breasted Thrush Turdus leucomelas 25/6 2 Carmo, 26/6 1 Sooretama, 3/7 1 Caraça, 6/7 1, 7/7 4 Serra da Canastra, 18/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Eastern Slaty-Thrush Turdus subalaris 8/7 1 Itatiaia, 15/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Long-billed Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus melanurus 26/6 2 Sooretama.

Masked Gnatcatcher Polioptila dumicola berlepschi 15/7 3 Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 1, 20/7 1 pair Transpantaneira.

Purplish Jay Cyanocorax cyanomelas 17/7 2 Cuiabá-Poconé, 17/7 c. 10, 18/7 c. 10, 19/7 1, 21/7 4 Transpantaneira.

Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus 4/7 2 Serra do Cipó-Belo Horizonte, 15/7 5, 16/7 3 Chapada dos Guimarães.

House Sparrow Passer domesticus locally common in urban areas.

Common Waxbill Estrilda astrild 12/7 c. 20 Arraial do Cabo. One of the few exotic species that have been established in South America.

Rufous-browed Peppershrike Cyclarhis gujanensis seen in small numbers at most sites.

Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus 22/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 25/6 4 Carmo, 11/7 1 Perequê, 12/7 1 Macambaba Road, 15/7 3, 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Rufous-crowned Greenlet Hylophilus poecilotis 22/6 3, 23/6 1 +1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 25/6 1 Carmo, 8/7 c. 5 , 9/7 1, 10/7 1 Itatiaia.

Lemon-chested Greenlet Hylophilus thoracicus thoracicus 25/6 1 male Carmo. This race (the nominate) has been proposed as a separate species, the Rio de Janeiro Greenlet, by Sibley.

Ashy-headed Greenlet Hylophilus pectoralis 18-20/7 2 daily Transpantaneira.

Hooded Siskin Carduelis magellanica 4/7 2 Serra do Cipó, 5/7 c. 10 Serra da Canastra.

Tropical Parula Parula pitiayumi 26/6 3, 27/6 4, 28/6 c. 5 Sooretama, 15/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães, 20/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Southern Yellowthroat Geothlypis velata 4/7 1 pair Serra do Cipó.

Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus 22/6 c. 10, 23/6 c. 8, 24/6 c. 5 Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 1 heard, 30/6 c. 5 Pindobas IV.

White-bellied Warbler Basileuterus hypoleucus 3/7 2 Caraça, 7/7 a few Serra da Canstra, 15/7 1, 16/7 1+1 heard Chapada dos Guimarães.

Flavescent Warbler Basileuterus flaveolus 20/7 1 male+3 heard Transpantaneira.

White-rimmed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus 22/6 2 +4 heard, 23/6 1 male + 4 heard, 24/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 8/7 c. 7 Itatiaia.

Bananaquit Coereba flaveola 29/6 1 Pindobas IV, 30/6 3 Santa Teresa, 9/7 2 Itatiaia, 11/7 c. 5 Perequê.

Red-legged Honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus holti 26/6 1 female Sooretama.

Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana fairly common in the southeast.

Chestnut-vented Conebill Conirostrum speciosum 25/6 3 Carmo, 28/6 1 pair Sooretama, 16/7 2 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Guira Tanager Hemithraupis guira 15/7 4, 16/7 4 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Rufous-headed Tanager Hemithraupis ruficapilla 29/6 5, 30/6 1 pair Pindobas IV, 1/7 6 Nova Lombardia, 7/7 3 Serra da Canastra, 9/7 5, 10/7 2 males Itatiaia.

Yellow-backed Tanager Hemithraupis flavicollis melanoxantha 24/6 4 Serra dos Orgãos, 26/6 c. 10, 27/6 1 male, 28/6 1 male Sooretama.

Hooded Tanager Nemosia pileata 6/7 1 female Serra da Canastra, 16/7 6 Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Cherry-throated Tanager Nemosia rourei** 29/6 2+at least 1 heard Pindobas IV. Yes, YES, YES!!! The species of the trip. The entire known world population is only 11 birds in two groups at Pindobas, so the situation is very critical for the survival of the species. We were the first Swedes ever to see this beautiful bird.

Burnished-buff Tanager Tangara cayana 25/6 6 Carmo, 4/7 1 male Serra do Cipó, 5/7 c. 10, 7/7 1 male Serra da Canastra, 10/7 1 pair Itatiaia, 15/7 1 male Chapada dos Guimarães.

White-bellied Tanager Tangara (mexicana) brasiliensis 26/6 6 Sooretama. Looks very different from Turquoise Tanagers of the Amazon, and would likely be more officially split soon.

Green-headed Tanager Tangara seledon 24/6 3 Serra dos Orgãos, 26/6 4 Sooretama, 2/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 9/7 4, 10/7 c. 10 Itatiaia, 11/7 c. 10 Perequê.

Red-necked Tanager Tangara cyanocephala 24/6 4 Serra dos Orgãos, 1/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 11/7 2 Perequê. Very beautiful tanager!

Brassy-breasted Tanager Tangara desmaresti 22/6 c. 20, 23/6 2 Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 c. 15 Pindobas IV, 8/7 2, 9/7 c. 10, 10/7 c. 15 Itatiaia.

Gilt-edged Tanager Tangara cyanoventris 29/6 c. 10 Pindobas IV, 1/7 c. 10, 2/7 c. 10 Nova Lombardia, 3/7 1 Caraça, 6/7 8, 7/7 c. 5 Serra da Canastra, 10/7 1 Itatiaia. A lovely tanager.

Swallow Tanager Tersina viridis 25/6 5 Carmo, 15/7 3,16/7 1 male Chapada dos Guimarães.

Fawn-breasted Tanager Pipraeidea melanonota 8/7 1 male Itatiaia.

Thick-billed Euphonia Euphonia laniirostris 16/7 1 male, 1 female Chapada dos Guimarães.

Violaceous Euphonia Euphonia violacea 24/6 1 pair Serra dos Orgãos, 26/6 c. 10 Sooretama.

Purple-throated Euphonia Euphonia chlorotica 26/6 1 male Sooretama, 6/7 1 male Serra da Canastra, 12/7 1 male Macambaba Road, 18/7 1 pair, 19/7 1 male Transpantaneira.

Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster 24/6 1 male Serra dos Orgãos.

Chestnut-bellied Euphonia Euphonia pectoralis 29/6 3 males Pindobas IV, 9/7 3 males, 1 female, 10/7 1 female Itatiaia.

Blue-naped Chlorophonia Chlorophonia cyanea 8/7 1 male Itatiaia. Beautiful bird!

Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum 25/6 1 Carmo, 15/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 c. 30, 19-20/7 seen Transpantaneira.

Golden-chevroned Tanager Thraupis ornata 24/6 4 ex. Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 2 ex., 30/6 c:a 10 ex. Pindobas IV, 9/7 c:a 10 ex., 10/7 c:a 10 ex. Itatiaia.

Sayaca Tanager Thraupis sayaca seen in small numbers at many sites.

Azure-shouldered Tanager Thraupis cyanoptera* 22/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 29/6 2 Pindobas IV, 1/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 9/7 1 Itatiaia.

Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo 16/7 c. 10 Chapada dos Guimarães, 17-21/7 fairly common Transpantaneira.

Brazilian Tanager Ramphocelus bresilius 25/6 1 pair Carmo, 26/6 4 Sooretama, 11/7 6 Perequê, 12/7 c. 10 Macambaba Road.

Lowland Hepatic-Tanager Piranga (flava) flava 3/7 2 Caraça.

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager Habia rubica 22/6 1 male+1 heard Serra dos Orgãos, 27/6 1 male Sooretama, 1/7 4, 2/7 a few Nova Lombardia.

Gray-headed Tanager Eucometis penicillata 20/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Flame-crested Tanager Tachyphonus cristatus 24/6 4 Serra dos Orgãos, 26/6 c. 5, 28/6 1 male Sooretama, 1/7 3 Nova Lombardia, 11/7 1 male Perequê.

White-shouldered Tanager Tachyphonus luctuosus 16/7 1 pair Chapada dos Guimarães.

Ruby-crowned Tanager Tachyphonus coronatus 24/6 2 males Serra dos Orgãos, 25/6 1 pair Carmo, 10/7 c. 10 Itatiaia, 11/7 1 male Perequê.

White-lined Tanager Tachyphonus rufus 2/7 2 males Nova Lombardia, 6/7 1 male Serra da Canastra.

Brown Tanager Orchesticus abeillei* 1/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 9/7 1, 10/7 2 Itatiaia.

Diademed Tanager Stephanophorus diadematus 22/6 2, 23/6 9 Serra dos Orgãos, 8/7 c. 25 Itatiaia.

Black-goggled Tanager Trichothraupis melanops fairly common in mountainous areas of the southeast.

Chestnut-headed Tanager Pyrrhocoma ruficeps 6/7 2 males, 1 female Serra da Canastra. A very surprising observation, probably constituting the first record for Serra da Canastra.

Cinnamon Tanager Schistochlamys ruficapillus 2/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 4/7 5 Serra do Cipó, 5/7 4 Serra da Canastra.

White-rumped Tanager Cypsnagra hirundinacea* 5/7 5 Serra da Canastra.

Magpie Tanager Cissopis leveriana 3/7 6 Caraça, 9/7 1, 10/7 4 Itatiaia.

Blue Finch Porphyrospiza caerulescens* 5-6/7 2 ad. males, 1 juv. male, 1 female Serra da Canastra.

Uniform Finch Haplospiza unicolor 10/7 c. 5 males Itatiaia.

Lesser Seed-Finch Oryzoborus angolensis 18/7 2 males Transpantaneira. [Under heavy pressure from bird trappers throughout its range.]

Rusty-collared Seedeater Sporophila collaris 18/7 6 males, 1 female, 20/7 1 male, 2 females Transpantaneira.

Yellow-bellied Seedeater Sporophila nigricollis 3/7 2-3 males Caraça, 5/7 1 male Serra da Canastra.

Double-collared Seedeater Sporophila caerulescens 2/7 1-2 males, c. 5 females Nova Lombardia, 3/7 1 male Caraça, 5/7 c. 5 males Serra da Canastra, 11/7 3 Perequê.

Plumbeous Seedeater Sporophila plumbea 5/7 4 males, 6/7 2 males Serra da Canastra, 15/7 1 male Chapada dos Guimarães.

White-bellied Seedeater Sporophila leucoptera 18/7 1 male, 19/7 2 males Transpantaneira.

Blue-black Grassquit Volatiania jacarina 5/7 3 females, 6/7 c. 10 Serra da Canastra, 15/7 1 female Chapada dos Guimarães

Sooty Grassquit Tiaris fuliginosa 25/6 2 males+1 heard Carmo. Uncommon in Rio de Janeiro state.

Cinereous Warbling-Finch Poospiza cinerea** 4/7 1 pair Sera do Cipó, 6/7 1 pair Serra da Canastra. A widespread but rare bird. Probably a new species for Serra da Canastra!

Red-rumped Warbling-Finch Poospiza lateralis latertalis 8/7 c. 10 Itatiaia.

Bay-chested Warbling-Finch Poospiza thoracica 22/6 1 pair, 23/6 c. 10 Serra dos Orgãos, 8/7 c. 20 Itatiaia.

Saffron-billed Sparrow Arremon flavirostris 19/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Grassland Sparrow Ammodramus humeralis 5/7 1 Serra da Canastra, 15/7 1 male Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 1 male, 21/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch Emberizoides herbicola 25/6 3 Carmo, 5/7 5, 6/7 1 Serra da Canastra, 12/7 1 Macambaba Road, 16/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Great Pampa-Finch Embernagra platensis 5/7 1 Serra da Canastra.

Pale-throated Serra-Finch Embernagra longicauda* 4/7 c. 4 Serra do Cipó.

Black-masked Finch Coryphaspiza melanotis** 5/7 1 male, 6/7 1 Serra da Canastra.

Red Pileated-Finch Coryphospingus cucullatus 15/7 6, 16/7 1 pair Chapada dos Guimarães, 17/7 3, 20/7 1 pair Transpantaneira.

Gray Pileated-Finch Coryphospingus pileatus 25/6 1 pair Carmo, 6/7 1 pair Serra da Canastra.

Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola 25/6 1 pair Carmo, 26/6 1 male Sooretama, 2/7 5 females Nova Lombardia, 3/7 3 females Caraça, 6/7 4 Serra da Canastra, 17-21/7 10-20 daily Transpantaneira.

Stripe-tailed Yellow-Finch Sicalis citrina 5/7 c. 10 Serra da Canastra.

Grayish Saltator Saltator coerulescens 17-21/7 2-10 daily Transpantaneira.

Green-winged Saltator Saltator similis 22/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 30/6 2 Pindobas IV, 1/7 3, 2/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 3/7 2 Caraça, 15/7 1, 16/7 2 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus 26/6 c. 10 Sooretama.

Thick-billed Saltator Saltator maxillosus* 23/6 1 male Serra dos Orgãos, 8/7 1 Itatiaia.

Black-throated Saltator Saltator atricollis 5/7 2 Serra da Canastra, 15/7 2, 16/7 3 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Yellow-green Grosbeak Caryothraustes canadensis 26/6 5, 27/6 c. 20, 28/6 c. 5 Sooretama.

Yellow-billed Cardinal Paroaria capitata 17-21/7 10-30 ex. daily Transpantaneira.

Red-crested Cardinal Paroaria coronata 17/7 1, 18/7 2, 20/7 1 Transpantaneira.

White-browed Blackbird Sturnella superciliaris 18/7 1 female, 20/7 1 male Transpantaneira.

Yellow-rumped Marshbird Pseudoleistes guirahuro 4/7 4 Serra do Cipó, 5/7 c. 60 Serra da Canastra.

Scarlet-headed Blackbird Amblyramphus holosericeus 18/7 3, 20/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Unicolored Blackbird Agelaius cyanopus 18/7 c. 10, 19/7 c. 20, 20/7 c. 50 Transpantaneira.

Chopi Blackbird Gnorimopsar chopi 27/6 c. 15 Sooretama, 5/7 c. 10, 6/7 c.25 Serra da Canastra, 15/7 c. 15,16/7 c. 50 Chapada dos Guimarães, 18/7 c. 10, 19/7 a few, 20/7 c. 30 Transpantaneira.

Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis 25/6 1 male Carmo, 3/7 1 male Caraça, 18/7 c. 10, 20-21/7 c. 70 Transpantaneira.

Bay-winged Cowbird Molothrus badius 17/7 c. 10, 18/7 c. 25, 19/7 a few Transpantaneira.

Giant Cowbird Scaphidura oryzivora 18/7 2, 21/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Troupial Icterus icterus 17/7 3, 18/7 1 heard, 21/7 3+1 heard Transpantaneira.

Epaulet Oriole Icterus cayanensis 17/7 2, 18/7 5 Transpantaneira.

Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela 16/7 2 Chapada dos Guimarães, 17-19/7 1 daily, 20/7 c. 30 Transpantaneira.

Golden-winged Cacique Cacicus chrysopterus 8/7 1, 10/7 4 Itatiaia.

Red-rumped Cacique Cacicus haemorrhous fairly common in the southeast

Solitary Cacique Cacicus solitarius 17/7 3, 19/7 4, 20/7 3 Transpantaneira.

Crested Orependola Psarocolius decumanus 3/7 c. 20 Caraça, 15/7 1 Chapada dos Guimarães. More seen.

541 species

** = threatened

* = near-threatened

Mammals

Giant Anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla 5/7 2 Serra da Canastra, 18/7 1 Transpantaneira. A fabulous creature! One of Samuel's dream mammals no. 1; he as well as all the others were pretty content with views from a distance of incredible 6 meters!

Southern Tamandua Tamandua tetradactyla 19/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Silvery Marmoset Callithrix argentata 17/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Buffy-headed Marmoset Callithrix flaviceps 30/6 2 Pindobas IV. An endangered, odd-looking monkey.

Geoffroy's Marmoset Callithrix geoffroyi 1/7 1 Nova Lombardia. The Tufted-ear Marmoset complex has been split into several species.

Masked Titi Callicebus personatus 3/7 2+4 heard Caraça.

Brown Capuchin Cebus apella 22/6 3 Serra dos Orgãos, 1/7 2 Nova Lombardia, 15/7 2, 16/7 2 Chapada dos Guimarães.

Black Howler Monkey Alouatta caraya 18/7 a few, 19/7 5, 20/7 5 Transpantaneira.

Brown Howler Monkey Alouatta fusca 25/6 2 heard Carmo, 1-2/7 several heard Nova Lombardia.

Maned Wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus 5/7 1 Serra da Canastra. The head and back of this rare creature was observed in rather tall grassland.

Azara's Fox 12/7 2 Macambaba Road.

Ring-tailed Coati Nasua nasua 22/6 1 Serra dos Orgãos, 18/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Giant Otter Pteronura brasiliensis 18/7 5, 21/7 2 Transpantaneira.

Tayra Eira barbata 29/6 1, 30/6 1 Pindobas IV, 1/7 1 Nova Lombardia.

Ocelot Felis pardalis 19/7 1 Transpantaneira. A truly incredible encounter; the cat walked right on the road and didn't disappear into the ditch until it was merely a few meters ahead of the car!

Pampas Deer Ozotocerus bezoarcticus 5/7 2 Serra da Canastra.

Red Brocket Deer Mazama americana 19/7 1, 20/7 1 Transpantaneira.

Brocket Deer sp. Mazama sp. 26/6 1 Sooretama.

Dolphin sp. 12/7 a few at Arraial do Cabo.

Guianan Squirrel Sciurus aestuans 1/7 1 Nova Lombardia, 9/7 1, 10/7 2 Itatiaia.

Capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris 19/7 c. 40 Transpantaneira.

Agouti sp. Dasyprocta sp. 19/7 1, 20/7 1 Transpantaneira. Probably Black Agouti.

Brazilian Rabbit Sylvilagus brasiliensis 26/6 1 Sooretama, 2/7 1 Nova Lombardia.

20+ species

Endemics

EBA 073 - Central Brazilian hills and tablelands - (5/7)

Hyacinth Visorbearer, Cipó Canastero, Brasília Tapaculo, Gray-backed Tachuri, Pale-throated Serra-Finch.

EBA 075 - Atlantic forest lowlands - (28/55)

Blue-bellied Parrot, Tawny-browed Owl, Minute Hermit, Saw-billed Hermit, Three-toed Jacamar, Yellow-eared Woodpecker, Striated Softtail, Pale-browed Treehunter, White-browed Foliage-gleaner, Spot-breasted Antvireo, Plumbeous Antvireo, Star-throated Antwren, Salvadori's Antwren, Band-tailed Antwren, Serra Antwren, Black-hooded Antwren, Restinga Antwren, Bertoni's Antbird, White-bibbed Antbird, Cryptic Antthrush, Spotted Bamboowren, Slaty Bristlefront, Hooded Berryeater, Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant, Oustalet's Tyrannulet, Cherry-throated Tanager, Azure-shouldered Tanager, Gilt-edged Tanager.

EBA 076 - Atlantic forest mountains - (12/23)

Itatiaia Spinetail, Rufous-backed Antvireo, Rufous-tailed Antbird, Ochre-rumped Antbird, Rufous-tailed Antthrush, Black-and-gold Cotinga, Gray-winged Cotinga, Black-capped Piprites, Gray-capped Tyrannulet, Serra do Mar Tyrannulet, Bay-chested Warbling-Finch, Brassy-breasted Tanager.

Also by Samuel Hansson:

Brazil 2001

Peru, Ecuador & Nariño, Colombia 1999


Copyright © 1992-2012 John Wall