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BRAZIL BIRDING TRIP

October - November 1999

by Mike Hunter

[Comments by John Wall in italics.]

INTRODUCTION

This report is primarily intended to document our trip and comment on any additional sites that might not be comprehensively covered in current gen. It does not replace previous reports and should be used in conjunction with Nigel Wheatley's Where to Watch Birds in South America. I have not drawn maps but most sites are relatively straightforward to get to and the birding areas within, usually even more straightforward. Where necessary, I have described access to sites, which when used with other gen, should be sufficient.

In four weeks, we managed to see or hear 492 species including 43 antbirds (2 antpittas, 2 gnateaters and 3 antthrushes), 11 cotingas and 4 tapaculos. Although no good field guide exists, birding in Brazil is relatively straightforward. For example, the number of flycatchers is comparatively small, the funariids are generally easy to identify and woodcreepers are not the remotest bit challenging. Identification of the flycatchers has been made much easier thanks to Robert Clay et al.

The Brazilian currency, the Real, from being significantly devalued only a year or two ago, is still falling in value against international currencies. As a result, everything in Brazil is inexpensive and car hire only cost £800 for the month including the additional mileage charge.

CLIMATE

The best time to go to southeast Brazil is between September and November as this coincides with the Austral Spring and more birds are calling. Most of the time during our trip the weather was warm to hot though was unseasonably wet at times.

MONEY

The Brazilian currency is the Real which was worth about three to every £ - and rising as the Brazilian currency continues to devalue. We exchanged dollars ($ = 1.88R) at the airport which, unlike in Costa Rica for example, cannot be used as cash.

CAR HIRE

We used Localiza booked through Andrew and Nadime Whittaker for a car for a month inclusive of full insurance (no excess) and 6,000 free kilometres. UK quoted prices were on average 10% to 20% more expensive than booking direct or through the Whittakers. It is possible to land at the international airport and negotiate a car on arrival at the airport. There are five car hire companies to choose from including Hertz, Avis and Localiza. Budget has a presence at São Paulo airport but not at Rio de Janeiro Airport.

We were unable to obtain a car inclusive of all mileage. There are various deals that include a base cost and so many free kilometres. We opted for 6,000 kilometres free and eventually did 7,500 'clicks'. Most of the roads are excellent but beware of 'sleeping policeman' in virtually every town and village. Try and stay on main routes. One of our short cuts – only 15 kms on the map – took hours to recover from!

HOTELS AND ACCOMMODATION

Budget priced hotels are available at most areas except Ubatuba where we camped. Assuming Porto Seguro to be an expensive coastal resort, we also camped here. Itatiaia NP has the most expensive hotels costing from £20 per person per night though camping is possible at the Pousada do Elephante. Not recommended during torrential rain! The excellent, clean and conveniently situated Ao Vivo hotel at Boa Nova was the cheapest costing less than £2 per person per night plus a hearty meal for £1.50.

PERMITS

Permits are only required for Augusto Ruschi and Sooretama Biological Reserves. These can now be obtained from the IBAMA office in Vitória. The gen we had suggested permits were issued at separate IBAMA offices. We sent letters to Linhares and Vitória IBAMA offices and received a permit, via e-mail, for Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve from the latter. Having 'struck gold' and to ensure there was no problem at Sooretama, we called in to negotiate a permit and were in and out of the Vitória office within twenty-five minutes. The IBAMA office at Linhares no longer issues permits as far as we are aware.

It is worth securing permits in advance as birders have been turned away from both sites. IBAMA is well organised and the on-site wardens receive duplicate copies of all permits issued.

IBAMA/NUC/ES
Av. Marechal Mascarenhas de Morães 2487
Bairo Bento Ferreira
29052-121 Vitória
Espírito Santo, Brasil
Tel: (027) 324 1811
Fax: (027) 324 1837
E-mail: gilberto@supes-es.ibama.gov.br

Advance permission is also required for Trilha do Rio Ipiranga, Ubatuba as described in this report for that site.

TAXONOMY

The Brazilian taxonomy, like many others, is undergoing rapid change. I have tried to incorporate latest taxonomic thinking in the systematic list where possible, even if controversial. New species are still getting found and splitting appears to be accelerating as birders and scientists study the birds in ever greater detail. Overall the systematic list, with additions, follows Howard & Moore.

BRAZIL-BASED BIRDERS

Despite the massive size of the country, there are very few birders in Brazil. I was able to make contact with the following prior to departure: -

1. Andrew Whittaker (birding@internext.com.br)

2. Ricardo Parrini (rparrini@hotmail.com)

3. Jeremy Minns (jeremy@uninet.com.br)

Andrew and Ricardo are professional birding guides. Andrew is also able to organise complete trips, car hire, internal flights as well acting as a birding guide. His wife sorted out our car which was available on arrival without hassle. Jeremy is a Rio de Janeiro-based birder who spends most weekends and public holidays in the Ubatuba area. He is not a professional guide but knows the Ubatuba area well. In just two mornings we were with him he was able to show us many of the Ubatuba specialities.

BOOKS AND REFERENCE MATERIAL

We used some or all of the following both during the trip and in pre and post-trip research: -

Chantler, Phil & Driessens, Gerald. Swifts. A Guide to the Swifts and Treeswifts of the World. (1995)

Clay, Robert P et al. Field identification of Phylloscartes and Phyllomyias tyrannulets in the Atlantic forest region. Cotinga. Journal of the Neotropical Bird Club. (Pages 82 – 95, Number 10, Autumn 1998).

Cleere, Nigel & Nurney, Dave. Nightjars. A Guide to Nightjars and Related Nightbirds. (1998)

Clements, J. Birds of the World: a Check List. (1991)

Collar, N J et al. Birds to Watch 2. The World List of Threatened Birds. (1994)

Curson, Jon et al. Helm Identification Guides. New World Warblers. (1994)

Hilty, Steven L & Brown, William L. A Guide to the Birds of Columbia. (1986)

Hoyo, Josep del et al. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 1 – 5. (1992 - 1999)

Juniper, Tony & Parr, Mike. Parrots. A Guide to the Parrots of the World. (1998)

Monroe, Burt L & Sibley, Charles G. A World Checklist of Birds. (1993)

Narosky, T & Yzurieta, D. Birds of Argentina & Uruguay. A Field Guide. (1993)

Pena, R de la Pena & Rumboll, M. Collins Illustrated Checklist. Birds of Southern South America and Antarctica. (1998)

Ridgely, Robert S & Tudor, Guy. The Birds of South America. Volume 1. The Oscine Passerines. (1989)

Ridgely, Robert S & Tudor, Guy. The Birds of South America. Volume 2. The Suboscine Passerines. (1994).

Schauensee, Rodolphe Meyer de. A Guide to the Birds of Venezuela. (1978)

Sick, Helmut. Birds in Brazil. (1993)

Silveira, Luis Fabio. The Birds of Serra da Canastra National Park and adjacent areas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cotinga. Journal of the Neotropical Bird Club. (Pages 55 – 65, Number 10, Autumn 1998).

Souza, Deodata. Todas as Aves do Brazil. (1998)

Weidensaul, Scott. The World of Nature. Hummingbirds. (1991)

Westoll, Tim. The Complete Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. (1998)

Wheatley, Nigel. Where to Watch Birds in South America. (1994)

Winkler, Hans et al. Woodpeckers. A Guide to the Woodpeckers, Piculets and Wrynecks of the World. (1995)

BIRDING REPORTS

We used the following reports: -

Bushell, Colin. Birding Trip to South-Eastern Brazil. September 1 – 26, 1994

Dacol, Dalcio. Brazil – São Paulo State. 5 – 16 December 1993

Forrester, Bruce C. Birding Brazil. A Check-list and Site Guide (1993)

Hornbuckle, Jon. Birding in Eastern Brazil. 17th January to 5th March 1995

Kirwin, Guy. Some Notes on Birding in Brazil, Jan – Mar 1995

Piper, Mark L. Birding in Eastern Brazil: 4th Dec 1993 – 4th Jan 1994.

Sargeant, Dave & Wall, John. Bahia. A Birder's Guide to Bahia, ne Brazil. (1996)

Wheatley, Nigel. Where to Watch Birds in South America. (1994) (Strictly speaking a book but doubles as a report)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Chris Bell is thanked for providing reports and tape recordings. Dave Pitman is also owed a debt of thanks for sharing information and tapes prior to the trip. Without Dave, we would never have met Jeremy Minns who in turn is very warmly thanked for his hospitality, conviviality and good birding in Brazil, and for some excellent information beforehand. Guy Kirwin, Jeremy Minns, Bruce Forrester and Ricardo Parrini have helped clarify a few stubborn species post-trip that were usually linked to taxonomic developments. Nadime Whittaker organised the hassle free hire car for which we are grateful. Overall, thanks is due to those identified above that have taken the time and trouble to record their experiences for others to follow.

THE 'CREW'

Comprised Andy Marshall and Richard Rowland on an eleven-week tour of Brazil and Mike Hunter just in for the four-week southeast Brazil leg.

FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information or clarification of any details in this report then please do not hesitate to contact the author. We hope the limited information contained in this report will ensure smooth hassle free trips for birders, and that those birders will contribute to the knowledge of the country by writing up their experiences accordingly. In this way, perhaps more birders will be inspired to visit and through eco-tourism save Brazil's remaining Atlantic forests.

MIKE HUNTER
45 Brinkburn Avenue, Darlington, Co Durham, DL3 0JN
December 1999
(01325) 251223
mikehunter@tinyonline.co.uk

BRIEF ITINERARY

Friday 8 October 1999 Arrive Rio de Janeiro airport and begin drive to Teresópolis.

Saturday 9 Serra dos Orgãos NP.

Sunday 10 Serra dos Orgãos NP (am) awaiting car repair Sumidouro and Carmo (pm)

Monday 11 Serra dos Orgãos NP birding main trail. Drive to Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve.

Tuesday 12 Arrive Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve 0900 hrs and bird all day.

Wednesday 13 Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve (am), Museu de Ruschi and Santa Lucia during the day with an evening visit to Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve.

Thursday 14 Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve until noon with drive to Sooretama Biological Reserve stopping off at Vitória to collect permit.

Friday 15 Sooretama Biological Reserve.

Saturday 16 Sooretama Biological Reserve.

Sunday 17 Sooretama Reserve (am) with drive to Monte Pascoal and Porto Seguro.

Monday 18 Porto Seguro.

Tuesday 19 Porto Seguro (am) driving to Camaca (pm). Long drive to Boa Nova.

Wednesday 20 Boa Nova birding dry forest (am) and Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova (pm).

Thursday 21 Boa Nova birding dry forest (all day with a late afternoon visit to Serra do Ouricana for nightbirds.

Friday 22 Serra do Ouricana (am) followed by a long drive to Caraça National Park.

Saturday 23 Caraça NP driving to Cipó NP late evening.

Sunday 24 Cipó NP driving to Serra da Canastra NP late evening.

Monday 25 Serra da Canastra NP. Bird the northern part of the park all day.

Tuesday 26 Serra da Canastra NP birding the southern part of the park all day.

Wednesday 27 Serra da Canastra NP (early am) with longish drive to Itirapina Reserve (late pm)

Thursday 28 Ochre-breasted Pipit site near Itirapina (am). Itirapina Reserve (pm).

Friday 29 Itirapina Reserve (am) with drive to Ubatuba (pm).

Saturday 30 Corcovado, Ubatuba (am), Fazendas Angelim and Capricornia, Ubatuba (pm).

Sunday 31 Folca Seca, Ubatuba (am), Corcovado, Ubatuba (late am and pm)

Monday 1 November Trilha do Rio Ipiranga, Ubatuba (am –early pm), Corcovado, Ubatuba (late pm).

Tuesday 2 Corcovado, Ubatuba and Fazenda Angelim (am), Perequê (midday) and Agulhas Negras Road, Itatiaia NP (late pm).

Wednesday 3 Agulhas Negras Road, Itatiaia NP (all day)

Thursday 4 Itatiaia NP - Jeep Trail (am), Três Picos Trail (pm)

Friday 5 Itatiaia NP - Três Picos Trail.

Saturday 6 Itatiaia NP - Jeep Trail & Três Picos Trails. Drive to Praia Seca via the airport.

Sunday 7 Praia Seca (am) with a little birding in Rio de Janeiro (midday) looking at terns before MH catches his UK flight and RR & AM their internal Brazil flight.

DAILY LOG

Friday 8th October 1999 – The team meets up at Rio and without wanting to stay in the city, begin what is hoped to be a short journey to Teresópolis. Unfortunately, fail to grasp the road layout, end up on the wrong road and can't get off for ages, double back, overshoot and a two hour journey turns into a four hour nightmare!

Saturday 9th October 1999 – Doss outside Serra dos Orgãos NP with birding after dawn producing the inevitable first ticks, most noteworthy being Blue-naped Chlorophonia. Bird the lower parts of the park including the first section of the main trail seeing lots of new birds including Rufous Gnateater, Grey-hooded Attila, Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, White-rimmed Warbler, Planalto Slaty Antshrike and Plovercrest amongst others.

Sunday 10th October 1999 – With an assault to Grey-winged Cotinga territory begging, our car decides an electrical failure is in order. A replacement car arrives amid much rain and we abandon our initial aspirations until tomorrow. With torrential rain still blighting mountain birding, decide to twitch Sumidouro and see four Three-toed Jacamars immediately. A small detour to Fazenda Rio José, near Carmo produces a surprising number of new birds including Yellow-lored Tody-flycatcher, Grey-crowned Flycatcher and Blue-winged Macaw.

Monday 11th October 1999 – The assault up the mountain at Serra dos Orgãos NP provides an astonishing few hours birding. Highlights including Hooded Berryeater, Sharp-billed Treehunter, excellent views of both Spot-winged Wood-quail and Variegated Antpitta, White-throated Woodcreeper, Swallow-tailed and Black-and-gold Cotingas, Sharpbill, Biscutate Swift, Rufous-tailed Antbird and Rufous-tailed Antthrush. The hoped for Grey-winged Cotinga did not materialise despite excellent weather on the tops. The drive to Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve took far longer than envisaged; not helped by taking short cuts on dirt roads that proved quite the opposite!

Tuesday 12th October 1999 - Eventually arrive at Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve at 0900 hrs and immediately begin to pick off several new birds seeing over the course of the day including Cinnamon-vented Piha, four tanagers, Surucua Trogon, Greenish Schiffornis, Hairy Hermit and three species each of antbird and foliage-gleaner along both trails.

Wednesday 13th October 1999 – A rather quiet morning in the forest though noteworthy birds including Ruddy Quail-dove and Rufous-browed Solitaire. Visits to Museu de Ruschi and Santa Lucia produced the required hummer tick – the stunning Saw-billed Hermit - at the latter, though the number of species at the former was well below its 20 species' listing – and probably has been for several years now. Mid afternoon onwards in Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve proved productive with five more ticks including lekking Bare-throated Bellbirds and the awesome White-bibbed Antbird. Activity was again high and our good luck continuing as without trying encounter a Large-tailed Potoo feeding at close range!

Thursday 14th October 1999 – A keen start at Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve to secure the few remaining specialities of the site, and with luck still running high, have birds falling into our laps. Stunning views of a Such's Anthrush singing on a log about a metre off the ground started off a fine morning with Black-throated Grosbeak, Grey-hooded Flycatcher and Swallow-tailed Cotinga also being seen. En route to Sooretama Biological Reserve, called into the IBAMA office in Vitória and were issued with a permit. Arrive too late for any diurnal birding and nocturnal birding was frustrating with Tawny-browed Owl, Tropical Screech-owl and Ocellated Poorwill only heard.

Friday 15th October 1999 – New site, new ticks is an axiom that works well at most sites and Sooretama was no exception. Failed to orientate correctly and bird the Main Trail rather than the Estrada Quinarão (EQ) without realising until mid-afternoon! Even so, new birds included Plumbeous Antshrike, Greyish Mourner, Black-necked Aracari and two species of both woodpeckers and antwrens. An afternoon session along the EQ produced the hoped for White-necked Hawk allowing close perched views. A good start to night birding with Tawny-browed Owl seen well in the car headlights along the main trail. Frustration soon set in though with Ocellated Poorwill, Black-capped Screech-owl and Large-tailed Potoo all heard!

Saturday 16th October 1999 – An excellent morning along the EQ with Black-cheeked Gnateater and Black-headed Berryeater – two of the teams perceived remaining 'biggies' – falling spectacularly. Again activity fell away dismally not long after 0900 hrs and the afternoon and owling sessions were complete disasters with nothing of interest what so ever seen.

Sunday 17th October 1999 – Another productive early morning along the EQ with Striated Softtail, Blond-crested and Robust Woodpeckers, Band-tailed Antwren, the exquisite Scaled Antbird and Solitary Tinamou. With activity again falling away markedly decide to call it a day at this frustrating site. The infamous Monte Pascoal was the next site and as soon as we looked out over the forest from the lookout we left almost as quickly as we had arrived. Not only was viewing over the forest rather restricted, but birders would have needed the Hubble telescope to tick anything! Unanimous that better views were warranted, we put our cotinga eggs in one Porto Seguro basket.

Monday 18th October 1999 – A bad start at Porto Seguro as the 'pylon' area does not provide the much sought after cotinga ticks. Small recompense comes in the form of White-chinned and Rufous-throated Sapphires. Check out the area further up the road; the best bird being a female Striped Manakin. The afternoon period scanning treetops in the same area is a wash out. The area appears to have been recently and extensively logged and we're becomingly increasingly worried whether we will rue our strategy to abandon Monte Pascoal so hastily.

Tuesday 19th October 1999 – With a change in fortunes required, bird an area further away from the road. With this, our last morning at the site, we are desperate to connect with the two cotingas but it wasn't until 0930 hrs that a female White-winged Cotinga finally fell followed shortly thereafter by a splendid male Banded Cotinga. Simultaneously elated and relived, head off to Camaca to find Pink-legged Graveteiro relatively easily. A nearby marsh at dusk was productive with excellent views of Ash-throated and Rufous-sided Crakes. A long drive to Boa Nova.

Wednesday 20th October 1999 – Dossed outside the dry forest at Boa Nova due to a late arrival. We couldn't work out where the forest was initially. Looking up the hillside the habitat looks so bad that one can't imagine that so many good birds can be found – but they can! We had twelve new birds including Hangnest Tody-tyrant, Cactus Parakeet, and five species of antbirds including Caatinga [split by Whitney et al. from Bahia Antwren (H. pileatus), the much rarer form, which is restricted to coastal restinga mainly between Comandatuba and Monte Pascoal] and Narrow-billed Antwrens, Silvery-cheeked Antshrike and Slender Antbird. A pm visit to the wet forest at Serra do Ouricana produced Lemon-chested Greenlet, Striated Softtail, Red-ruffed Fruitcrow and, rather bizarrely, our first Drab-breasted Bamboo-tyrant. A nearby marsh revealed Masked Duck, Chestnut-capped Blackbird and Band-winged Hornero to end a good day all round.

Thursday 21st October 1999 – Decide to concentrate efforts in the dry forest in the hope of clearing up on one or two outstanding species. In the event, we see Ochre-cheeked Spinetail, Grey-eyed Greenlet and Sapphire-spangled Hummingbird as well as most of the species seen yesterday. Despite having a tape, could not see Stripe-backed Antbird as hard as we tried. A splendid Scissor-tailed Nightjar at Serra do Ouricana was the only reward for two hours' nightbirding.

Friday 22nd October 1999 – Our last morning was spent at Serra do Ouricana where we finally saw Bahia Tyrannulet as well as Ochre-faced Tody-flycatcher. Despite the small size of this forest, birding was hard work with few birds vocalising. Long drive to Caraça National Park.

Saturday 23rd October 1999 – Birded the entrance road to Caraça National Park first thing finding Slaty-breasted Wood-rail and our first Yellow-rumped Marshbirds. The park itself held easy Serra Antwren, Ochre-rumped Antbird, White-shouldered Fire-eye, Planalto Tyrannulet and Serra do Mar Tyrant-manakin. As no one seems to admit to knowing anything about how to see Maned Wolf, decide not to spend the night here, as planned, and drive to Cipó National Park. [When I arrived at Caraça in mid-afternoon, a Maned Wolf was feeding on lunch leftovers on top of the rubbish dumpster in the car park. At dusk, the monks put out a tray of steaks on the main chapel entrance, and a Maned Wolf walked up a flight of steps and ran the gauntlet of screaming children and electronic flashes to gulp them down. There is a similar nightly feeding at Canastra Park HQ. These may be the most desirable Maned Wolf territories.]

Sunday 24th October 1999 – An excellent day at Cipó National Park seeing all the goodies easily including Cipó Canastero, Hyacinth Visorbearer, the sometimes tricky Cinereous Warbling-finch, Pale-throated Sierra-finch and Yellow-billed Blue Finch. Longish drive to Serra da Canastra National Park.

Monday 25th October 1999 – A good day in the northern half of Serra da Canastra National Park seeing White-tailed Goldenthroat, Cock-tailed Tyrant, Brasília Tapaculo, Spotted Nothura and Ochre-breasted Pipit. Maned Wolf was totally unexpected as it walked sedately in the grass in the open three hundred metres away; more than making up for our disappointment at Caraça National Park. Despite a thorough search of the rivers we could not find any mergansers.

Tuesday 26th October 1999 – Bird the southern half of Serra da Canastra National Park but disaster as the slippery conditions result in the car sliding across a 'bridge' and the front wheel becoming wedged. The locals soon have us out with the car miraculously undamaged. Despite the incessant rain, some birding was possible seeing Red-breasted Toucan, Helmeted Manakin, Plush-crested Jay and Russet-mantled Foliage-gleaner all at or near the waterfall. Again check the river on foot but torrential rain means that we abort this in favour of checking the very few stretches of river visible from the car. Remarkably, a family party of Brazilian Mergansers sat in the middle of the river and further luck is bestowed on us as we blunder through the village of Vargem Bonita to see a Stripe-breasted Starthroat on wires and watch it fly to a nearby hummer feeder where there are six more! A trip moment indeed and worth the few drinks later that evening!

Wednesday 27th October 1999 – Persistent overnight rain finally begins to clear at 0900 hrs. Our already delayed start is then curtailed when have to turn back trying to access the northern side of Serra da Canastra National Park due to thick mud on what was left of the 'road' – but not before we tick off Red-legged Seriema in a field – a family tick for all crew members! Decide to leave and try to catch up with the few things missed at this site at Itirapina Reserve and our first evening at the site does not disappoint. Good views of Capped Seedeater, Collared Crescentchest and Sharp-tailed Grass-tyrant was amble reward for one hour's birding just before dusk!

Thursday 28th October 1999 – Visit a Ochre-breasted Pipit site near Itirapina but only see South American Snipe, another seriema, Yellowish Pipit and cracking day-flying views of Nacunda Nighthawk flushed from its daytime roost. Itirapina Reserve finally yielded Lesser Nothura but still no Bearded Tachuri.

Friday 29th October 1999 – One final crack for Bearded Tachuri at Itirapina Reserve proved fruitless and thankful, leave what was without doubt the worst site of the trip so far! What should have been a five-hour or so drive to Ubatuba turned into a twelve-hour nightmare as more car trouble hit us. With more cars than women notched up this trip for AM, continue in a replacement car and en route confirm arrangements with Jeremy for tomorrow!

Saturday 30th October 1999 – Get wires crossed and Jeremy waits at one bridge, us at another, five kilometres away! Bird Corcovado area seeing Neotropic River Warbler, Saw-billed Hermit and Eye-ringed Tody-tyrant but no ticks. Rearrange to meet Jeremy tomorrow. In the afternoon bird Fazendas Angelim and Capricornia having a wretched time seeing absolutely nothing until the first tick of the day finally falls – Buff-throated Purpletuft – around the clearing at Fazenda Angelim. Evening with Jeremy and family.

Sunday 31st October 1999 – No problems with the arrangements this morning and head straight off to Folca Seca where Jeremy shows us Red-eyed Thornbird, Tawny-throated Leaftosser, Slaty Bristlefront and Rufous-capped Motmot. Such a contrast to yesterday- actually seeing good birds in forest! A late morning visit to Corcovado did not produce Russet-winged Spadebill at Jeremy's 'stakeout' but we did see Fork-tailed Tody-tyrant, Star-throated Antwren and Black-and-white Hawk-eagle. An afternoon visit to Corcovado without Jeremy produced little except excellent views of Black-cheeked Gnateater. Stayed with Jeremy and family, talking and drinking to the small hours.

Monday 1st November 1999 – A pre-dawn rise for Trilha do Rio Ipiringa. With Jeremy it rained ticks at this excellent site. Goodies included Squamate Antbird, Rufous-tailed Attila, Bare-throated Bellbird, Tufted Antshrike, Bertoni's Antbird, Hooded Berryeater, Black-billed Scythebill, Ornate Hawk-eagle and Mantled Hawk in a little over six hours. Speckle-breasted Antpittas were commonly heard but not seen despite getting close on two occasions. Leaving Jeremy's after a few celebratory drinks, a late afternoon, almost token effort at Corcovado, at last, produced the cracking Russet-winged Spadebill for MH.

Tuesday 2nd November 1999 – An early morning foray in Corcovado failed to find the spadebill and Fazenda Angelim was equally disappointing with no new birds to be found. A midday stop at Perequê was productive with a stunning male Black-hooded Antwren seen well. Finally arrive at Itatiaia National Park late afternoon and latch onto a few good birds including White-spotted Woodpecker, Thick-billed Saltator and Rufous-backed Antvireo along the Agulhas Negras Road.

Wednesday 3rd November 1999 – The excellent-for-birding Agulhas Negras Road produced nearly all the specialities that could reasonable be expected, including Black-capped Piprites, Red-rumped Warbling-finch, both black-tyrants, Itatiaia Thistletail, Plovercrest, and Rufous-tailed Anthrush. Satisfied, checked into the Pousada do Elephante.

Thursday 4th November 1999 – Up before dawn as had been tipped off by a birder that authorities stopping birders using the Jeep Trail. Sure enough, a large gate now blocks the entrance but we were passed that before anyone was around. Birding was slow but we did see Saffron Toucanet, several species of myrmeciza antbirds and Large-tailed Antshrike. Despite spending time around calling Brown-breasted Bamboo-tyrants we still couldn't even catch a glimpse of the little cfi\Y@¦…! The Três Picos Trail in the afternoon was equally slow, the only bird of note being Blue-naped Chlorophonia.

Friday 5th November 1999 – A day to concentrate on the bamboo specialities so the Três Picos Trail it was. Some birds are hard work but after four hours the entire team had finally caught up with Speckle-breasted Antpitta. It was worth it! Other birds included Uniform Finch, Slaty Bristlefront, a pair of Giant Antshrikes feeding in the open on the trail and a male Blackish-blue Seedeater. Also encountered a gorgeous (presumed) ocelot picking a fight with a large snake completely unaware MH was watching less than five metres away!

Saturday 6th November 1999 – Our last morning is productive with Grey Elaenia, Large-headed Flatbill and Red-capped Parrot along the Jeep Trail, and Brown Tinamou, Chestnut-bellied Euphonia, Large-headed Flatbill and Rufous-breasted Leaftosser along Três Picos Trail. Confirmed respective flights at the Rio de Janeiro Airport en route to Praia Seca.

Sunday 7th November 1999 – At least six Restinga Antwrens found quite easily at Praia Seca along with Pearly-vented Tody-tyrant – an apparent range extension. A quick stop in Rio de Janeiro produced Cayenne and South American Terns before MH flew back to the UK and RR & AM continued their trip for another seven weeks.

SITE SUMMARY – IN THE ORDER VISITED

Serra dos Orgãos NP

Easily found near the town of Teresópolis. This is a superb area with good all day birding. The main trail starts at the small reservoir and winds fairly steeply uphill though lush primary forest. Most of our good birds were seen from this trail to about 1800m. Grey-winged Cotinga is the bird to find here but is by no means easy. The easiest site appears to be around the first campsite at around 1800m. Although we had excellent weather, we couldn't hear any birds singing but only had the one shot as our car formed electrical problems on our second morning at this site. This is one of the best sites for White-throated Woodcreeper and Hooded Berryeater. We also jammed Variegated Antpitta along the trail.

Sumidouro

This is the easiest site in the world for Three-toed Jacamar, which were easily seen by the roadside. Take the excellent highway out of Teresópolis towards Alem Paraiba. Coming from Rio de Janeiro birders will arrive at a roundabout just before Teresópolis. Left goes to the town of Teresópolis and Serra dos Orgãos NP and straight on the Alem Paraiba highway. At km 7 turn right on a dirt track sign-posted Sumidouro and drive 4 kms reaching an obvious loop in the road. The birds frequent this area.

Fazenda Rio José, Carmo

This is another site for Three-toed Jacamar as well as Rio de Janeiro Antbird. From the main highway near Sumidouro head north to Além Paraíba, take the dirt road to the left at the petrol station on the left just outside Carmo. Pass the entrance to the Fazenda São José on the right and shortly after is an area with forest on both sides of the road. We did not see any of the target species here though were not especially looking for the jacamar. We did see Blue-winged Macaw and Yellow-lored Tody-flycatcher.

SANTA TERESA AREA

1. Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve, near Santa Teresa

An excellent tract of mid-elevation forest and the only site with noticeable flocking activity; one flock containing over twenty-five species. Access to the reserve is straightforward from the main square of Santa Teresa. Take the dirt road that rises from the square and keep straight except for a 'Nova Lombardia' sign at a right fork. Bird both tracks as different species occur. We drove the tracks slowly just after dawn and were rewarded with Ruddy Quail-dove. Other crews have had antpittas and antthrushes in the open! Don't neglect the hummer feeders at the warden's house as we had Saw-billed Hermit here as well as Sombre Hummingbird and Frilled Coquette. IBAMA permission is needed to visit this reserve and one should apply for a permit at least two months before visiting.

2. Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa

Very close to the main square in Santa Elaenia. Famous for its hummer feeders though we saw nothing especially noteworthy. The entrance fee is 1.50R.

3. Santa Lucia, nr Santa Teresa

A small privately owned reserve near Nova Lombardia. This is a good site for Saw-billed Hermit. Permission for access must be made at Museu de Ruschi. We didn't know this and turned up. The researchers were kind enough to allow us time to see the hermits before we left. It is our understanding permits are readily issued.

Finding the site is fairly straightforward. From Museu de Ruschi, continue out of town on the main road turning right after a few kilometres at a garage (on the left) onto the Santa Leopoldina dirt track. Take the first left and follow the dirt road round for a few kilometres until you reach the reserve gates.

Sooretama Biological Reserve

This reserve contains one of the main remaining lowland forest tracts in southeast Brazil. The forest is mainly secondary though the Estrada Quinarão penetrates better, but not primary, forest. We found birding here very slow, with slow activity decreasing to nothing after about 1000. The more open habitat allows good visual access to the forest floor and we saw Variegated, Small-billed and Solitary Tinamous here. Finding the reserve is easy. Turn left off the main BR-101 200 metres before an Esso station down a dirt road with an obvious red and white sign. After a few kms turn right to reach the entrance to the compound. The main track is off to the right about a km beyond the compound and the Estrada Quinarão several kms off to the right off that. Except for Plumbeous Antshrike along the main track, most of our good birds were seen along the Estrada Quinarão which is where birders need to concentrate efforts to see Red-billed Curassow. This bird seems far more difficult at this site now than in previous years. [Shotguns heard day and night in 1996.] The best bet is to visit Linhares Reserve after rain where birds still get seen with remarkable regularity. One of the key birds here is Scalloped Antbird which is very hard and easier with a tape. There are very few birds that only occur here and having seen Black-headed Berryeater, we left early as felt the chances of seeing either the curassow or antbird were slim.

Monte Pascoal

Access as per Wheatley though Indians, who have probably been given their land back, now control the area [cutting down old trees and shooting endangered birds, e.g., Ringed Woodpecker, to sell to Brazilian tourists]. Obligatory guides accompany visitors [this is new since 1994] and the view overlooking the forest did not inspire us to start looking for cotingas as the views would have been dismally poor. We left the circus as quickly as we could! The entrance fee is 3R plus the 'guide's' tip.

Porto Seguro

We concentrated on two areas following Bushell's maps. I thought I'd recorded kilometre details but cannot now find them. The first area was a dirt road about 15 kilometres before Porto Seguro airport which, coming from the town is on the right. Keep right initially on this dirt road and then straight passing a right hand turn and you'll find an open area with pylons. Banded Cotinga occurs here though we failed to see any. The second area was by the far the most productive though is partly explained by the amount of time we spent here. Drive west along the main road from the first site for 1.5 kms and you'll see an obvious gate and house on the right hand side. Walk through the gate and follow the dirt track for two kilometres into a large clearing. This is the area favoured by cotingas in all previous gen though we failed to score here. We continued down the bank, through the ravine and up the other side where we turned right and followed the trees around until we reached a much larger clearing. In the line of trees ahead and to the left we saw three species of cotinga (if facing straight ahead after turning right from the ravine).

Camaca

The best site for the recently described Pink-legged Graveteiro is at Camaca, just off the BR-101, 80km south of Itabuna. In Camaca take the road to Jacareci, passing the supermarkets Cesto do Povo and Super Sacolão (0.0km). After a speed bump and small shop (10.2km), turn left, opposite a bridge. The track up to the telecommunications tower (16.1km) is rough and in wet weather slippery but passes through good secondary growth. We couldn't make it but were only 3 kms short, walked the rest and saw one male Graveteiro close to the tower near a house on the left-hand side of the road just after a left-hand bend.

Boa Nova including Serra do Ouricana

The number of birds recorded in such a small area is remarkable. The area is entirely unprotected and deforestation of the wet forest at Serra do Ouricana continues at a dramatic pace. The dry forest looks more secure though it is fragmented.

The dry forest is just over a kilometre outside Boa Nova and can be accessed in several ways though the easiest is a gate about 200 meters past a bridge on the left-hand side coming from the town. The track from the gate is wide and rises up the hill where a trail forks off to the right into a network of trails. There is another patch of dry forest further up the hill though this did not seem as productive. We saw a remarkable number of antbirds here including the specialities of Narrow-billed Antwren and Slender Antbird. We failed to even hear the other semi-specialities of White-browed Antpitta or Stripe-backed Antbird though. The antbird is possible in caatinga habitat further north.

The wet forest is easily found further along the road and is about 16 kilometres from Boa Nova. The forest has very much shrunk in size and is essentially a forested valley visible from the main road. The main specialties of the site are Bahia Spinetail and Bahia Tyrannulet. We saw the former along the main trail and the latter at the edge of the forest also along the main trail.

Caraça National Park

We came here primarily to see Maned Wolf though we suspect one has to stay at the monastery to see it being fed. We met one fortunate birder here who saw it lumbering along a trail towards the monastery. Birding was good seeing, at just about its best site in the world, Serra Antwren along the Tanque Grande Trail. Despite trying hard, we failed to find Dusky-tailed Antbird. There is a 10R-entrance fee and opening times from 0700 hrs to 1700 hrs, closing the gates to departing traffic at 2100 hrs. We found the site easily enough from the BR-262 Belo Horizonte – Vitória road turning off a few kilometres before Santa Barbara. This site can be birded in half a day en route to Serra do Cipó or Serra da Canastra NPs and as such should be incorporated in most itineraries. [Fazenda Montes Claros (the Caratinga Reserve) and Fazenda Pindobas IV (Cherry-throated Tanager site) are places not to be missed en route from Vitória to Caraça & Cipó.]

Cipó National Park

This site is well covered in Wheatley and we spent most of our time at the hairpin about a kilometre above the Hotel Chapéu do Sol and an area of hills to the right, a few kilometres beyond the hairpin after the first pass. We cleared up within six hours though it can take days to do so.

Serra da Canastra National Park

This reserve is in two halves, both accessible from São Roque de Minas where we stayed at the excellent Hotel Favia. The northern half of the reserve is an extensive area of grassland habitat good for Ochre-breasted Pipit, Spotted Nothura and Cock-tailed Tyrant, all of which we saw easily. We also had an amazing slice of luck seeing Maned Wolf on our first morning walking through the grasslands. We concentrated our efforts on the mergansers by following the river from the top of the Casca d'Anta Waterfall seeing nothing.

The southern half of the reserve is accessed via Vargem Bonita and José de Barreiro to reach the forest at the base of the Casca d'Anta Waterfall. It was here that we saw Russet-mantled Foliage-gleaner, Helmeted Manakin and Great Dusky Swift. Despite torrential rain, we again concentrated efforts on the mergansers and were rewarded with a family party visible from the road along the River São Francisco 10.6 kms west of Vargem Bonita.

In Vargem Bonita itself we came across a hummer feeder at house number 133 with Stripe-breasted Starthroats as the dominant species! The street had a restaurant called Ze Capucho and a mini roundabout at the end.

Itirapina Reserve & environs

A poor reserve but reliable for Lesser Nothura which aren't easy due to the number of Spotted Nothura present at the site. We eventually flushed a nothura with bright rufous underparts – even visible from behind in flight. We also saw Capped Seedeater, Collared Crescentchest and Sharp-tailed Grass-tyrant but no Bearded Tachuri or Great Snipe.

Access is straightforward. From the main highway (SP-310) north out of São Paulo take the SP-225 west to Jau passing the first sign-posted junction to Itirapina. At the second junction turn right and immediately left though the wire gate. Follow the sandy track for about 4 kms stopping where the bushes thin out and give way to extensive grasslands. This is the best area for Lesser Nothura. Another entrance further along the road near a chicken factory owned by Sadia looked like it had been permanently blocked off.

An Ochre-breasted Pipit site is further along the main road. Pass a tollbooth and park at a petrol station immediately thereafter. Take the track to the back of the petrol station and explore the fields. We only came across Yellowish Pipits but also saw Red-legged Seriema and our only Nacunda Nighthawk and South American Snipe of the trip.

We stayed at the excellent Horto Florestal. Turn left at the second junction to Itirapina and it is on the left about 600 metres along the road. Those staying tend to be researchers and through not booking in advance it was touch and go as to whether we would get in despite evidence we were students. In the end, and more likely through not being busy, we were allowed in at a cost of 5R per person per night. Using on site cooking facilities the price is 10R per person per night. At the time of leaving, no-one spoke English so we couldn't pick up any e-mail details.

UBATUBA AREA

1. Corcovado

Turn inland at Praia Dura (km 69 on the Rio / Santos, c.30 minutes from Caraguatatuba and 25 minutes from Ubatuba, 900m west of the two bridges (side-by-side, one closed) over the Rio Escuro). After 400m fork left, keeping on the asphalt and look for a right turn (after 3 kms or so) with a sign 'Caminhada ao Pico' which leads to a bridge. From the bridge, on foot, take the second track to the right. After about 500m there is a ford and then an open area. A track along the left side of the open area leads into forest. On the right side, in the bamboo along the river, we saw one Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant though there are two or three pairs present.

The trail up to the Pico do Corcovado starts 100m before the ford on the right hand side coming from the ford. It crosses the river and then a small stream and goes through good primary forest. We saw Russet-winged Spadebill about 2 kms along this excellent trail.

2. Fazendas Angelim and Capricornia

Turn left off the road to Parati, about 4km east of the roundabout on the Ubatuba / Taubaté road, signposted (badly) to Bairo Taquaral. After 100m turn right and drive a km or so to reach Fazenda Angelim which contained by far the best forest of the two sites. To reach Fazenda Capricornio, turn right off the main Ubatuba / Taubate road and continue for 1.2 kms before taking the right fork to reach the Fazenda. Both are overgrown cacau plantations though have the main accessible populations of Buff-throated Purpletufts which we saw in the clearing just after the entrance at Fazenda Angelim. Permission was not required at Angelim though we were asked at Capricornio whether we had permission and then allowed to continue birding.

3. Folca Seca

This area is noted for being a reliable site for Spotted Bamboowren that occurs in bracken as well as bamboo here. Unless the birds are calling they are almost impossible. Turn inland at Praia Dura and instead of forking left to Corcovado after 400m, fork right along the dirt road. Pass the camping site, cross a bridge and fork left at a small bar. Continue straight ahead, passing a number of houses and cross roads and then some open fields. The road gets much worse, with a steep hill to the right and secondary forest to the left. Where the road leaves the hill, about 3km from the bar, there is a disused earth quarry holding bamboo-wren in the bracken. A very rough trail starts at the quarry and leads to a xuxu (squash) patch with Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant which we dipped. Thanks to Jeremy we saw Red-eyed Thornbird, Tawny-throated Leaftosser and Slaty Bristlefront here.

4. Trilha do Rio Ipiranga

A superb area of mid-elevation forest for which advance permission is required. At least one day before, ring the Instituto Florestal in São Luiz do Paraitinga (012-271-1480; Katia is very helpful) to get permission to walk the trail. From the Ubatuba to Taubaté road near the top of the mountain range, turn right to the Parque Estadual do Serra do Mar, Núcleo Santa Virgínia. The trail starts at a locked gate by the bridge over the Rio Ipiranga. Pick up the key at the park headquarters, 2km after the bridge. After 3-4 km of good secondary growth the trail enters excellent primary forest.

With Jeremy, we saw some excellent birds including the stunning Squamate Antbird, Rufous-tailed Attila, Euler's Flycatcher, Tufted Antshrike, Black-billed Scythebill, Bertoni's Antbird and Mantled Hawk. Birders visiting Ubatuba should put this site firmly on their itinerary as this has to the premiere forest site in the Ubatuba area.

Perequê

Almost certainly the most reliable site for the critically endangered Black-hooded Antwren near the town of Perequê, between Parati and Angra dos Reis. Turn inland off the BR-101 into the town of Perequê. Drive up the main street till you reach the end of asphalt (1.4 km) and turn right. Continue for several blocks and turn left immediately after a football pitch on the left (1km). Drive along the dirt road for 7 kms and after the fourth bridge there is an open shed on the right with a dirt track to the left in front of it. The site is 200 metres further along the main road through a barbed wire gate on the right. We found one male easily though there are 6 to 7 pairs present apparently. More sites will almost certainly be found and hopefully the species current critically endangered status will be revised downwards. Buff-throated Purpletuft also occurs here.

Itatiaia National Park.

Well covered in the existing gen and we really can't add anything significant. Clearly a vehicle makes it easier to get around and bird on the Agulhas Negras Road. We saw most things fairly easily including Rufous-backed Antvireo, Thick-billed Saltator, Serra do Mar Tyrannulet, Black-capped Piprites, Rufous-tailed Anthrush, Red-rumped Warbling-finch, both Black-tyrants and Itatiaia Thistletail.

Access to the main forested reserve is easy. We stayed at the acceptable Pousada do Elephante costing 60R per person per night with three meals included. Camping costs 10R per person per night. Birding without a car is possible at this site with the Jeep Trail being a maximum of four kilometres away. Birds were hard to come by as few things were flocking. The Jeep Trail has the best forest though the Três Picos Trail should not be ignored, as the bamboo specialities appear easier to see here, unsurprising as the trail is predominantly bamboo. We saw Speckle-breasted Antpitta along here as well as Uniform Finch. Chris Bell et al had White-bearded Antshrike in 1998. [Not there in August 1997, but easily found at on Carmo road at Fazenda Intervales, SP. Claravis godfredi was calling in bamboo below and to the "left" of the Jeep Trail entrance and at White-bearded AS spot at Intervales.]

Praia Seca

The site for Restinga Antwren near Rio de Janeiro. Access is straightforward. Drive east from the village of Praia Seca for 6.9 kms. In the areas of bush and sand look for the antwrens that were vocal from an hour or so after dawn during our visit and are easily seen.

CHECKLIST OF THE 492 SPECIES SEEN OR HEARD

1. Solitary Tinamou (Tinamus solitarius) 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

2. Brown Tinamou (Crypturellus obsoletus) 2 heard at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 heard at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 heard at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 2 seen along the Três Picos Trail, Itatiaia National Park on 06/11/1999 with others heard from 05/11/1999 to 06/11/1999. 1 heard at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999. 2 heard at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 2 heard at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999.

3. [Yellow-legged Tinamou (Crypturellus noctivagus)] 1 heard at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999. 5 heard at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

4. Variegated Tinamou (Crypturellus variegatus) 1 at Sooretama on 16/10/1999.

5. Small-billed Tinamou (Crypturellus parvirostris) 2 seen at Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999. 1 heard at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. 1 heard at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 1 seen (more heard) at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 14/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

6. [Tataupa Tinamou (Crypturellus tataupa)] 1 heard at Itirapina Reserve on 29/10/1999.

7. Red-winged Tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens) 2 heard at Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 28/10/1999. 2 heard at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

8. Spotted Nothura (Nothura maculosa maculosa) 2 at Itirapina Reserve from 27/10/1999 until 28/10/1999. 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

9. Lesser Nothura (Nothura minor) 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 28/10/1999. After several Spotted Nothuras, finally flush one that had very obvious rufous underparts.

10. Least Grebe (Tachybaptus dominicus) 1 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999.

11. Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) 1 seen on a roadside pool near Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999.

12. Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) 2 at Itirapina from 27/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 4 at Rio de Janeiro from 06/11/1999 until 07/11/1999. 1 between Serra da Canastra and Itirapina on 27/10/1999.

13. Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens) 1 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999. 1 between Praia Seca and Rio de Janeiro on 07/11/1999. Fairly common at Rio de Janeiro on 06/11/1999. 6 at Ubatuba on 02/11/1999.

14. Whistling Heron (Syrigma sibilatrix) 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

15. Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) 1 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 2 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999. 2 at Rio de Janeiro on 07/11/1999. 1 between Sumidouro and Carmo on 10/10/1999.

16. Capped Heron (Pilherodius pileatus) 1 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999.

17. Cocoi (White-necked) Heron (Ardea cocoi) 2 at Rio de Janeiro from 06/11/1999 until 07/11/1999. 1 between Serra da Canastra NP and Itirapina on 27/10/1999.

18. Great White Egret (Egretta alba egretta) 3 in a marsh near Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 between Itatiaia NP and Rio de Janeiro on 06/11/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 3 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999. Fairly common at Rio de Janeiro from 06/11/1999 until 07/11/1999. 2 between Serra da Canastra and Itirapina on 27/10/1999.

19. Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) c.30 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. c.20 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. c.60 at Itirapina Reserve on 27/10/1999. 11 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999. c.10 between Santa Teresa and Sooretama on 14/10/1999.

20. Striated Heron (Butorides striatus) 2 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 2 between Serra da Canastra and Itirapina on 27/10/1999.

21. Black-crowned Night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) 7 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999. 1 at Rio de Janeiro on 06/11/1999.

22. Buff-necked Ibis (Theristicus caudatus) 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

23. Masked Duck (Oxyura dominica) 1 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

24. Brazilian Teal (Amazonetta brasiliensis) 4 at Itirapina Reserve on 28/10/1999. 2 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999.

25. White-cheeked Pintail (Anas bahamensis) 2 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999.

 Brazilian Merganser (Mergus octosetaceus). Painting by J. Searight from the cover of Cotinga 926. Brazilian Merganser (Mergus octosetaceus) 5 (adults with three young) on the Rio São Francisco, Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

27. American Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) Common everwhere.

28. Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) Widespread but nowhere common.

29. King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 16/10/1999.

30. Grey-headed Kite (Leptodon cayanensis) 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

31. Hook-billed Kite (Chondrohierax uncinatus) 5 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. 1 over the main track, Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

32. American Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus) 6 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999.

33. White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) c.3 at Itirapina Reserve from 27/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 1 between Serra da Canastra and Itirapina on 27/10/1999.

34. Rufous-thighed Kite (Harpagus diodon) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 10/10/1999.

35. Plumbeous Kite (Ictinia plumbea) 2 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999. 2 between Sumidouro and Carmo on 10/10/1999.

36. Long-winged Harrier (Circus buffoni) 1 between Sooretama Biological Reserve and Monte Pascoal National Park on 17/10/1999.

37. Rufous-thighed Hawk (Accipiter erythronemius) 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

38. Bicoloured Hawk (Accipiter bicolor) 3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 14/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

39. Crane Hawk (Geranospiza caerulescens) 1 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999.

40. White-necked Hawk (Leucopternis lacernulata) 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999.

41. Mantled Hawk (Leucopternis polionota) 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

42. Savannah Hawk (Buteogallus meridionalis) 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

43. Black-chested Buzzard-eagle (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

44. Grey-lined Hawk (Asturina nitida) 1 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999.

45. Roadside Hawk (Buteo magnirostris) 1 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999. 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 2 at Itirapina Reserve on 28/10/1999. 2 at Porto Seguro from 18/10/1999 until 19/10/1999. 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999. 1 between Sumidouro and Carmo on 10/10/1999.

46. Short-tailed Hawk (Buteo brachyurus) 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

47. White-tailed Hawk (Buteo albicaudatus) 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos - Sumidouro on 10/10/1999.

48. Black-and-white Hawk-eagle (Spizastur melanoleucus) 1 adult at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 adult at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

49. Black Hawk-eagle (Spizaetus tyrannus) 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999.

50. Ornate Hawk-eagle (Spizaetus ornatus) 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

51. Crested Caracara (Polyborus plancus) Seen in small numbers at nearly all sites visited.

52. Yellow-headed Caracara (Milvago chimachima) 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 2 at Itirapina Reserve on 28/10/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. 1 between Santa Teresa and Sooretama on 14/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

53. Laughing Falcon (Herpetotheres cachinnans) 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

54. American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) 1 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 29/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

55. Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis) 1 between Serra da Canastra National Pk and Itirapina on 27/10/1999.

56. Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 29/10/1999.

57. Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris) 3 at Porto Seguro from 18/10/1999 until 19/10/1999.

58. Dusky-legged Guan (Penelope obscura) 3 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 4 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) from 02/11/1999 until 03/11/1999. 7 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999.

59. Spot-winged Wood-quail (Odontophorus capueira) 3 heard at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 4 heard at Itatiaia National Park from 03/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. 1 seen well on the main forest trail, Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999.

60. Rufous-sided Crake (Laterallus melanophaius) 2 on a marsh, near Camaca on 19/10/1999.

61. Grey-necked Wood-rail (Aramides cajanea) 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

62. Slaty-breasted Wood-rail (Aramides saracura) 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 02/11/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

63. Ash-throated Crake (Porzana albicollis) 2 on a marsh, near Camaca on 19/10/1999.

64. Blackish Rail (Pardirallus nigricans) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 2 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 3 between Teresópolis and Nova Lombardia on 12/10/1999.

65. American Purple Gallinule (Porphyrio martinicus) 4 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

66. Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) 4 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 1 on a marsh, near Camaca on 19/10/1999.

67. Red-legged Seriema (Cariama cristata) 1 in fields behind the petrol station, near Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 2 heard at Itirapina Reserve from 27/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 26/10/1999 until 27/10/1999.

68. Wattled Jacana (Jacana jacana) 1 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 1 on a marsh near Camaca on 19/10/1999. 2 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999.

69. Grey Plover (Pluvialis squatarola) 2 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999.

70. Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis) 3 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999. 1 on a marsh near Camaca on 19/10/1999. c.13 at Itirapina from 27/10/1999 until 28/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 27/10/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. 3 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999. 2 at Rio de Janeiro on 06/11/1999. 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

71. South American Snipe (Gallinago paraguaiae) 4 in fields behind the petrol station, near Itirapina on 28/10/1999.

72. Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca) 3 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999.

73. Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) 5 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

74. Red Knot (Calidris canutus) c.50 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999.

75. Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) 2 at Rio de Janeiro from 06/11/1999 until 07/11/1999.

76. Cayenne [Sandwich] Tern (Sterna sandvicensis eurygnatha) c.10 at Rio de Janeiro on 07/11/1999.

77. Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) c.30 at Rio de Janeiro on 07/11/1999.

78. South American Tern (Sterna hirundinacea) 1 at Rio de Janeiro on 07/10/1999.
79. Feral Pigeon [Rock Dove] (Columba livia) Noted in most towns and villages.

80. Scaled Pigeon (Columba speciosa) c.7 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999.

81. Picazuro Pigeon (Columba picazuro) 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 between Carmo and Serra dos Orgãos NP on 10/10/1999. c.14 at Itirapina from 27/10/1999 until 28/10/1999. c.18 at Itirapina Reserve from 28/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 6 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999. 3 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

82. Pale-vented Pigeon (Columba cayennensis) 2 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. c.25 at Itirapina Reserve from 28/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

83. Plumbeous Pigeon (Columba plumbea) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 13/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 2 heard at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. c.7 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. 10 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999. 1 heard at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

84. Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata) c.10 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

85. Scaled Dove (Columbina squammata) 4 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

86. Plain-breasted Ground-dove (Columbina minuta) 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999. 1 between Sumidouro and Carmo on 10/10/1999. 2 between Teresópolis and Nova Lombardia on 12/10/1999.

87. Ruddy Ground-dove (Columbina talpacoti) 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Capricornia, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 2 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park on 06/11/1999. 1 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. Fairly common at Porto Seguro from 18/10/1999 until 19/10/1999. c.7 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 26/10/1999 until 27/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999. 1 between Teresópolis and Nova Lombardia on 12/10/1999.

88. Picui Ground-dove (Columbina picui) 3 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 1 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999.

89. Grey-fronted Dove (Leptotila rufaxilla) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 1 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999.

90. Ruddy Quail-dove (Geotrygon montana) 3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999.

91. Blue-winged Macaw (Ara maracana) 2 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

92. White-eyed Parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalmus) 4 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 2 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. c.10 at São Roque de Minas on 25/10/1999. c.21 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999.

93. Golden-capped Parakeet (Aratinga auricapilla) A small group noted feeding in the village of Vargem Bonita, Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

94. Peach-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga aurea) 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. c.10 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

95. Caatinga (Cactus) Parakeet (Aratinga cactorum) c.8 in and around Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999.

96. Blue-throated Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) 2 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. 5 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

97. Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis) Fairly common at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. c.6 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. c.23 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. c.52 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

98. White-eared (Maroon-faced) Parakeet (Pyrrhura leucotis) c.8 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. c.6 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999.

99. Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius) 3 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 3 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 4 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

100. Plain Parakeet (Brotogeris tirica) 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 3 at Monte Pascoal National Park on 17/10/1999. 6 at Porto Seguro from 18/10/1999 until 19/10/1999. 7 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

101. Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri) c.10 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

102. Pileated (Red-capped) Parrot (Pionopsitta pileata) 1 along the Jeep Trail, Itatiaia National Park on 06/11/1999. Parrots flying high at Caraça National Park may also have been of this species but were never seen well enough.

103. Scaly-headed Parrot (Pionus maximiliani) 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. c.6 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. 4 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

104. Red-browed Parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha) c.15 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 14/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

105. Mealy Parrot (Amazona farinosa) c.12 at Porto Seguro from 18/10/1999 until 19/10/1999. 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

106. Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya cayana) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999. 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. 1 at Monte Pascoal National Park on 17/10/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999. 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

107. Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani) c.10 at Boa Nova on 21/10/1999. 3 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 2 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 02/11/1999. 5 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 3 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 2 at Perequê on 02/11/1999. c.8 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999. 4 at Sooretama - Porto Seguro on 17/10/1999.

108. Guira Cuckoo (Guira guira) 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 16/10/1999 until 17/10/1999. 1 between Sumidouro and Carmo on 10/10/1999.

109. Barn Owl (Tyto alba tuidara) 1 between Camaca and Boa Nova on 19/10/1999. 1 at Sumidouro on 10/10/1999.

111. [Tropical Screech-owl (Otus choliba)] 1 heard at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 14/10/1999.

111. [Black-capped Screech-owl (Otus atricapillus atricapillus)] 1 heard at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

112. Tawny-browed Owl (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana) 2 heard with 1 seen well along main track, Sooretama Biological Reserve from 14/10/1999 until 15/10/1999.

113. [Brazilian Pygmy-owl (Glaucidium minutissimum)] 2 heard at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999.

114. Ferruginous Pygmy-owl (Glaucidium Brasílianum) 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

115. Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) c.5 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. c.5 at Itirapina Reserve from 27/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 2 at Porto Seguro from 18/10/1999 until 19/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

116. Large-tailed (Long-tailed) Potoo (Nyctibius aethereus aethereus) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999. 1 heard at the junction of the main track at the Estrada Quinarão, Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

117. [Grey Potoo (Nyctibius griseus)] 1 heard at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999.

118. Chestnut-banded (Semi-collared / Short-tailed) Nighthawk (Lurocalis semitorquatus nattereri) 3 heard at Itatiaia National Park from 03/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. 1 heard at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 16/10/1999. 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999.

119. Lesser Nighthawk (Chordeiles acutipennis) 1 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999.

120. Nacunda Nighthawk (Podager nacunda) 2 flushed during the day near Itirapina on 28/10/1999.

121. Pauraque (Nyctidromus albicollis) 2 at Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999. 5 at Porto Seguro from 17/10/1999 until 19/10/1999. c.3 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 21/10/1999. c.12 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 14/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

122. [Ocellated Poorwill (Nyctiphrynus ocellatus)] 3 heard at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

123. Band-winged Nightjar (Caprimulgus longirostris) 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

124. Scissor-tailed Nightjar (Hydropsalis brasiliana) 1 male at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 21/10/1999.

125. Great Dusky Swift (Cypseloides senex) c.40 below the waterfall, Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

126. White-collared Swift (Streptoprocne zonaris) c.100 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 3 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. c.35 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. c.27 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. Very common at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999. c.9 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

127. Biscutate Swift (Streptoprocne biscutata) c.4 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999 were identified at 2000m when both this and the above species were seen together well.

128. Grey-rumped Swift (Chaetura cinereiventris) c.6 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999. c.2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 14/10/1999.

129. Ashy-tailed Swift (Chaetura andrei) c.10 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 1 at Monte Pascoal National Park on 17/10/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. c.3 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. c.22 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

130. Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift (Panyptila cayennensis) 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999.

131. Hairy (Rufous-breasted) Hermit (Glaucis hirsuta) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 1 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999.

132. Scale-throated Hermit (Phaethornis eurynome) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 14/10/1999. c.5 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 6 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

133. Planalto Hermit (Phaethornis pretrei) 1 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. 2 at São Roque de Minas on 26/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. 2 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

134. Reddish Hermit (Phaethornis ruber) 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999.

135. Saw-billed Hermit (Ramphodon naevius) 1 at the hummer feeders by the warden's house, Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 14/10/1999. 2 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 2 at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999.

136. Swallow-tailed Hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura) 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. c.13 at Itirapina from 27/10/1999 until 28/10/1999. 1 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. 2 at São Roque de Minas on 26/10/1999. 3 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

137. Black Jacobin (Melanotrochilus fuscus) c.8 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 at Fazenda Capricornia, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 2 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 02/11/1999. c.8 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. c.14 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. c.5 at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999. 3 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 10/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

138. White-vented Violetear (Colibri serrirostris) 1 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 29/10/1999. 1 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. 2 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

139. Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis) 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 2 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999.

140. Ruby-topaz Hummingbird (Chrysolampis mosquitus) 1 male at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999.

141. Plovercrest (Stephanoxis lalandi) 3 lekking at the marsh, Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 5+ lekking along the Três Picos Trail, Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 1 female at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

142. Frilled Coquette (Lophornis magnificus) 4 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 05/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 2 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

143. Glittering-bellied (Pucheran's) Emerald (Chlorostilbon aureoventris pucherani) 3 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 2 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 1 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. 1 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999. 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999. 2 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 1 at Sumidouro on 10/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999.

144. Violet-capped Woodnymph (Thalurania glaucopis) c.8 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. c.4 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. c.4 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. 2 at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

145. Rufous-throated Sapphire (Hylocharis sapphirina) 2 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 29/10/1999. 4 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999.

146. White-chinned Sapphire (Hylocharis cyanus) 1 male at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999.

147. Gilded Sapphire (Hummingbird) (Hylocharis chrysura) 2 near Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 29/10/1999.

148. White-throated Hummingbird (Leucochloris albicollis) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 14/10/1999. c.3 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 5 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

149. White-tailed Goldenthroat (Polytmus guainumbi) 1 male at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

150. Versicoloured Emerald (Agyrtria versicolor) 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999.

151. Glittering-throated Emerald (Polyerata fimbriata) 1 at Sumidouro on 10/10/1999.

152. Sapphire-spangled Emerald (Polyerata lactea) 1 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999.

153. Sombre Hummingbird (Aphantochroa cirrochloris) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. c.2 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. 2 at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999.

154. Brazilian Ruby (Clytolaema rubricauda) 4 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 3 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 3 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. 2 at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999. 2 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

155. Hyacinth Visorbearer (Augastes scutatus) c.7 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

156. Stripe-breasted Starthroat (Heliomaster squamosus) 7 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

157. White-tailed Trogon (Trogon viridis) 5 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

158. Black-throated Trogon (Trogon rufus) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 14/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

159. Surucua Trogon (Trogon surrucura) 3 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999. 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. between 12/10/1999 and 13/10/1999 with one showing characteristics consistent with the orange-bellied race 'aurantius' and the other the nominate 'yellow-bellied' form. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 22/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999.

160. Ringed Kingfisher (Ceryle torquata) 1 at Itirapina from 27/10/1999 until 29/10/1999.

161. Green Kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana) 1 seen at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999.

162. Rufous-capped Motmot (Baryphthengus ruficapillus) 1 heard at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 6 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999.

163. Three-toed Jacamar (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla) 4 at Sumidouro on 10/10/1999.

164. Rufous-tailed Jacamar (Galbula ruficauda ruficauda) 1 at Itirapina on 29/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/11/1999.

165. White-eared Puffbird (Nystalus chacuru) 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999. with three seen well 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

166. White-fronted Nunbird (Monasa morphoeus) 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999.

167. Swallow-wing (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) 5+ at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999. 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

168. Black-necked Araçari (Pteroglossus aracari) 4 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

169. Saffron Toucanet (Baillonius bailloni) 3 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999.

170. Spot-billed Toucanet (Selenidera maculirostris) 3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

171. Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus) 3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 2 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999.

172. Red-breasted Toucan (Ramphastos dicolorus) c.5 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

173. Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco) 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999.

174. White-barred Piculet (Picumnus cirratus) 1 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 16/10/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

175. White-wedged (Blackish) Piculet (Picumnus albosquamatus guttifer) 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999.

176. Yellow-fronted Woodpecker (Melanerpes flavifrons) 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

177. Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus) 1 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

177. White-spotted Woodpecker (Veniliornis spilogaster) 3 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) from 02/11/1999 until 03/11/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999.

179. Yellow-eared Woodpecker (Veniliornis maculifrons) 4 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

180. Yellow-throated Woodpecker (Piculus flavigula erythropis) c.2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 2 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999.

181. Yellow-browed (White-browed) Woodpecker (Piculus aurulentus) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

182. Green-barred Woodpecker (Colaptes melanochloros) 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

183. Campo (Field) Flicker (Colaptes campestris) 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. c.6 at Itirapina Reserve from 27/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 6 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999. c.6 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

184. Blond-crested Woodpecker (Celeus flavescens) 1 at Fazenda Capricornia, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 1 heard at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

185. Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus) 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 29/10/1999. 3 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999.

186. Robust Woodpecker (Campephilus robustus) 2 at Porto Seguro from 18/10/1999 until 19/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

187. Plain-winged (Thrush-like) Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla turdina) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999. 2 heard at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

188. Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasornus griseicapillus sylviellus) 5 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 4 at Itatiaia National Park from 05/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999. 2 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

189. White-throated Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 13/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999.

190. Planalto Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 14/10/1999.

191. Buff-throated Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus guttatus) 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

192. Narrow-billed Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes angustirostris) 2 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999.

193. Scaled Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes squamatus) 3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999. 2 at Sumidouro on 10/10/1999. 2 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

194. Lesser Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes fuscus) 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 3 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999. 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

195. Black-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus falcularius) 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

196. Wing-banded Hornero (Furnarius figulus) 3 at Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 to 21/10/1999. 1 on a marsh near Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

197. Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 3 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. c.6 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 1 between Teresópolis and Nova Lombardia on 12/10/1999.

198. Itatiaia Thistletail (Schizoeaca moreirae) 4 from the marsh upwards, Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999.

199. Rufous-capped Spinetail (Synallaxis ruficapilla) 1 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 5 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999.

200. Bahia Spinetail (Synallaxis whitneyi) 2 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

201. Sooty-fronted Spinetail (Synallaxis frontalis) 3 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999.

202. Pale-breasted Spinetail (Synallaxis albescens) 2 at Itirapina Reserve from 27/10/1999 to 28/10/1999.

203. Chicli (Spix's) Spinetail (Synallaxis spixi) 2 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

204. Ochre-cheeked Spinetail (Synallaxis scutata) 3 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999.

205. Pallid Spinetail (Cranioleuca pallida) 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999. 3 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

206. Yellow-chinned Spinetail (Certhiaxis cinnamomea) 1 on a marsh near Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

207. Pink-legged Graveteiro (Acrobatornis fonsecai) 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. [Attention RSR: Better English name needed! "Graveteiro" is Portuguese for "firewood-gatherer", a common name already in use for a different, wide-ranging furnariid. "Graveteiro" might easily be confused with "gravateiro", which means a dealer in neckties or a strangler. English names should be chosen by English speakers.]

208. Cipó Canastero (Asthenes luizae) c.9 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

209. Striated Softtail (Thripophaga macroura) 4 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

210. Plain (Rufous-fronted / Common) Thornbird (Phacellodomus rufifrons) 1 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 2 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. c.10 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

211. Red-eyed Thornbird (Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus) 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999.

212. Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper (Lochmias nematura) 1 heard at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. 1 heard at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999. 3 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

213. Pale-browed Treehunter (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus) 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

214. Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata) 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999. 2 along the Jeep Trail, Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999.

215. Russet-mantled Foliage-gleaner (Philydor dimidiatus) 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

216. White-browed Foliage-gleaner (Philydor amaurotis) 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 05/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999.

217. Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner (Philydor lichtensteini) c.5 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999.

218. Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner (Philydor rufus) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 4 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

219. Black-capped Foliage-gleaner (Philydor atricapillus) c.3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999. 5 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

220. White-collared Foliage-gleaner (Anabazenops fuscus) 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos on 09/10/1999. 1 along the Jeep Trail, Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999.

221. White-eyed Foliage-gleaner (Automolus leucophthalmus) 3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999.

222. Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Sclerurus mexicanus) 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999.

223. Rufous-breasted Leaftosser (Sclerurus scansor) 1 along the Três Picos Trail, Itatiaia National Park on 06/11/1999.

224. Sharp-billed Treehunter (Heliobletus contaminatus) 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

225. Plain Xenops (Xenops minutus) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

226. Streaked Xenops (Xenops rutilans) 4 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 4 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

227. Spot-backed Antshrike (Hypoedaleus guttatus) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999.

228. Giant Antshrike (Batara cinerea) 5 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 1 heard at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

229. Tufted Antshrike (Mackenziaena severa) 1 heard at Itatiaia National Park on 06/11/1999. 1 male at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

230. Large-tailed Antshrike (Mackenziaena leachii) 1 male at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999.

231. Silvery-cheeked Antshrike (Sakesphorus cristatus) 10+ at Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999.

232. Barred Antshrike (Thamnophilus doliatus) 1 at Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999. 2 at Itirapina Reserve on 29/10/1999.

233. Planalto Slaty Antshrike (Thamnophilus pelzelni) c.6 at Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999. 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 14/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

234. Sooretama Slaty Antshrike (Thamnophilus ambiguus) 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 16/10/1999.

235. Variable Antshrike (Thamnophilus caerulescens) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 5 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 1 at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. 1 heard at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

236. Rufous-capped Antshrike (Thamnophilus ruficapillus) 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999.

237. Spot-breasted Antvireo (Dysithamnus stictothorax) 4 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999.

238. Plain Antvireo (Dysithamnus mentalis) 3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999.

239. Rufous-backed Antvireo (Dysithamnus xanthopterus) 2 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) from 02/11/1999 until 03/11/1999.

240. Plumbeous Antshrike (Thamnomanes plumbeus) 1 male at the start of the main track, Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

241. Cinereous Antshrike (Thamnomanes caesius) 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

242. Star-throated Antwren (Myrmotherula gularis) 3 at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 31/10/1999 until 01/11/1999. 1 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 02/11/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 05/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999. 1 heard at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

243. Grey-flanked (White-flanked) Antwren (Myrmotherula axillaris luctuosa) 5 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

244. Band-tailed Antwren (Myrmotherula urosticta) 1 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

245. Black-capped Antwren (Herpsilochmus atricapillus) 2 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999.

246. Caatinga Antwren (Herpsilochmus sellowi) 1 male at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999. [See Worldtwitch Brazil for citation to article by Whitney et al. describing this species, split from Bahia Antwren, H. pileatus, actually a rare Bahia endemic limited to coast restinga mainly south of Comandatuba.]

247. Rufous-winged Antwren (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus) 2 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 02/11/1999. 2 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

248. Narrow-billed Antwren (Formicivora iheringi) 2 at Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999.

249. Black-bellied Antwren (Formicivora melanogaster) c.6 at Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999.

250. Serra Antwren (Formicivora serrana) 3 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999.

251. Restinga Antwren (Formicivora littoralis) 4 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999.

252. Black-hooded Antwren (Formicivora erythronotos) 1 male at Perequê on 02/11/1999.

253. Ferruginous Antbird (Drymophila ferruginea) 2 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 02/11/1999. 3 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. c.12 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999.

254. Bertoni's Antbird (Drymophila rubricollis) 2 seen (more heard) at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 2 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

255. Rufous-tailed Antbird (Drymophila genei) 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999.

256. Ochre-rumped Antbird (Drymophila ochropyga) 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 4 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. 4 heard at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

257. Scaled Antbird (Drymophila squamata) 3 heard at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 until 02/11/1999. 1 heard at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999.

258. Streak-capped Antwren (Terenura maculata) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 2 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 02/11/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999.

259. White-shouldered Fire-eye (Pyriglena leucoptera) 3 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 2 heard at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 2 heard at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 heard at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. c.6 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. 1 heard at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

260. Slender Antbird (Rhopornis ardesiaca) 3 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999.

261. White-bibbed Antbird (Myrmeciza loricata) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. c.6 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999.

262. Squamate Antbird (Myrmeciza squamosa) 3 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

263. Short-tailed Antthrush (Chamaeza campanisona) 2 seen (c. 4 heard) at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999.

264. Such's Antthrush (Chamaeza meruloides) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. c.5 heard at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 1 heard at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 22/10/1999. 4 heard at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

265. Rufous-tailed Antthrush (Chamaeza ruficauda) 2 seen (c.8 heard) at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 02/11/1999. c.10 heard at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 1 seen (3+ heard) at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

266. Variegated Antpitta (Grallaria varia) 1 heard at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 2 heard at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. c.5 heard at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 1 seen well of the main trail, others heard, Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

267. Speckle-breasted Antpitta (Hylopezus nattereri) 4 heard at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 1 eventally seen well in bamboo off the Três Picos Trail, Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. At least six other birds heard. 4 heard at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

268. Rufous Gnateater (Conopophaga lineata) 1 male at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 3 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

269. Black-cheeked Gnateater (Conopophaga melanops) 1 male at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 male at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 16/10/1999.

270. Collared Crescent-chest (Melanopareia torquata) c.4 at Itirapina Reserve from 27/10/1999 until 29/10/1999.

271. Slaty Bristlefront (Merulaxis ater) 2 heard at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 seen (2 more heard) at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999.

272. Mouse-coloured Tapaculo (Scytalopus speluncae) 1 seen well at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999. c.4 heard at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. c.6 heard at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 3 heard at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 22/10/1999. 1 heard at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

273. Brasília Tapaculo (Scytalopus novacapitalis) 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

274. Swallow-tailed Cotinga (Phibalura flavirostris) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 3 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999.

275. Black-and-gold Cotinga (Tijuca atra) 5 heard at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) from 02/11/1999 until 03/11/1999. Frequently heard at higher elevations along the Jeep Trail but just the one seen at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 6+ seen easily with others heard at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

276. Hooded Berryeater (Carpornis cucullatus) 1 seen well (others heard) at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999. 1 seen (4 + heard) at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

277. Black-headed Berryeater (Carpornis melanocephalus) 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 16/10/1999.

278. Buff-throated Purpletuft (Iodopleura pipra) 2 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999.

279. Cinnamon-vented Piha (Lipaugus lanioides) 3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999.

Banded Cotinga, Cotinga maculata. Painting by Eduardo Parentoni Brettas from the cover of Cotinga 12280. Banded Cotinga (Cotinga maculata) 1 male at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999.

281. White-winged Cotinga (Xipholena atropurpurea) 2 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999.

282. Red-ruffed Fruitcrow (Pyroderus scutatus) 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

283. Bare-throated Bellbird (Procnias nudicollis) 6 lekking at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 2 heard at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 heard at Perequê on 02/11/1999. 1 heard at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999. 1 male seen well at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999. Others heard.

284. Sharpbill (Oxyruncus cristatus) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. From 12/10/1999 to 13/10/1999. 1 along the Jeep Tail, Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

285. Red-headed Manakin (Pipra rubrocapilla) 2 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

286. Helmeted Manakin (Antilophia galeata) 1 male near Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

287. Swallow-tailed Manakin (Chiroxiphia caudata) 4 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 until 02/11/1999. 6 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. 2 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

288. Pin-tailed Manakin (Ilicura militaris) 5 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 4 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 22/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

289. White-bearded Manakin (Manacus manacus) 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 heard at Perequê on 02/11/1999.

290. Striped Manakin (Machaeropterus regulus) 1 female at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999.

291. Serra do Mar Tyrant-manakin (Neopelma chrysolophum) 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999.

292. Black-capped Manakin (Piprites) (Piprites pileatus) 2 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 1 along the Três Picos Trail, Itatiaia National Park on 06/11/1999.

293. Wing-barred Manakin (Piprites) (Piprites chloris) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 14/10/1999.

294. Grey-hooded Flycatcher (Mionectes rufiventris) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 14/10/1999. c.4 at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 31/10/1999 until 02/11/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999.

295. Sepia-capped Flycatcher (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 heard at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

296. Drab-breasted Bamboo-tyrant (Hemitriccus diops) 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

297. [Brown-breasted Bamboo-tyrant (Hemitriccus obsoletus)] 3 heard at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. Frustrating birds – simply couldn't get good tickable views no matter how hard we tried! 3-4 heard along the Jeep Trail, Itatiaia NP on 04/11/1999.

298. Eye-ringed Tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus orbitatus) 2 at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 until 02/11/1999. 1 heard at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

299. Hangnest Tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) c.5 at Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999.

300. Fork-tailed Tody-flycatcher (Hemitriccus furcatus) 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999.

301. Ochre-faced Tody-flycatcher (Todirostrum plumbeiceps) 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

302. Yellow-lored Tody-flycatcher (Todirostrum poliocephalum) 1 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 22/10/1999.

303. Common Tody-flycatcher (Todirostrum cinereum) 1 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999. 2 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999. 3 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

304. Planalto Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias fasciatus) 4 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999.

305. Grey-capped Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias griseocapilla) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999. 2 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 02/11/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999.

306. Southern Beardless Tyrannulet (Camptostoma obsoletum) 5 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

307. Mouse-coloured Tyrannulet (Phaeomyias murina) 2 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

308. Yellow Tyrannulet (Capsiempis flaveola) 1 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999. 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999.

309. Grey Elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps) 1 along the Jeep Trail, Itatiaia National Park on 06/11/1999.

310. Yellow-bellied Elaenia (Elaenia flavogaster) 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

311. Olivaceous Elaenia (Elaenia mesoleuca) 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

312. Plain-crested Elaenia (Elaenia cristata) 2 at Itirapina Reserve from 28/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 5 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. c.2 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

313. Lesser Elaenia (Elaenia chiriquensis) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 2 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. c.3 at Itirapina Reserve from 28/10/1999 until 29/10/1999.

314. Highland Elaenia (Elaenia obscura) 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

315. Sooty Tyrannulet (Serpophaga nigricans) 4 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999.

316. White-crested Tyrannulet (Serpophaga subcristata) 2 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 29/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

317. Sharp-tailed Tyrant [Grass-tyrant] (Culicivora caudacuta) 2 at Itirapina Reserve on 27/10/1999.

318. Grey-backed Tachuri (Polystictus superciliaris) c.6 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

319. Oustalet's Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes oustaleti) c.6 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 13/10/1999 until 14/11/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

320. Serra Do Mar Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes difficilis) 2 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999.

321. Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes ventralis) 4 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

322. Bahia Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes beckeri) 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999.

323. Eared Pygmy-tyrant (Myiornis auricularis) 4 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

324. Olivaceous Flatbill (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus) 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 16/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

325. Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Tolmomyias sulphurescens) 3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 4 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999. 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 heard at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 06/11/1999. 2 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. 4 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 22/10/1999. 2 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

326. Grey-crowned Flycatcher (Tolmomyias poliocephalus) 1 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999.

327. Yellow-breasted Flycatcher (Tolmomyias flaviventris) 2 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999. 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999.

328. White-throated Spadebill (Platyrinchus mystaceus) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 13/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 heard at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

329. Russet-winged Spadebill (Platyrinchus leucoryphus) 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

330. Bran-coloured Flycatcher (Myiophobus fasciatus) 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Capricornia, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999.

331. Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher (Myiobius barbatus mastacalis) 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 2 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

332. Black-tailed Flycatcher (Myiobius atricaudus) 5 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999.

333. Swallow Flycatcher (Hirundinea bellicosa pallidior) 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 2 at Monte Pascoal National Park on 17/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

334. Fuscous Flycatcher (Cnemotriccus fuscatus) 2 at Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999.

335. Euler's Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus euleri euleri) 2 heard at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 3 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

336. Tropical Pewee (Contopus cinereus) c.5 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 13/10/1999 until 14/10/1999.

337. Vermillion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus) 1 male at Fazenda Capricornia, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999.

338. Grey Monjita (Xolmis cinerea) 1 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 28/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. 3 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 1 between Teresópolis and Nova Lombardia on 12/10/1999.

339. White-rumped Monjita (Xolmis velata) 2 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. c.6 at Itirapina Reserve from 27/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 2 at Itirapina Reserve on 28/10/1999. 5 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999.

340. White Monjita (Xolmis irupero) 1 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

341. Blue-billed Black-tyrant (Knipolegus cyanirostris) 6 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) from 02/11/1999 until 03/11/1999. 2 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

342. Velvety Black-tyrant (Knipolegus nigerrimus) c.6 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999.

343. Crested Black-tyrant (Knipolegus lophotes) c.7 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999. 3 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 2 at Teresópolis - Nova Lombardia on 12/10/1999.

344. Masked Water-tyrant (Fluvicola nengeta) 3 at Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999. 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 4 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 2 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 10/10/1999. 1 between Teresópolis and Nova Lombardia on 12/10/1999.

345. White-headed Marsh-tyrant (Arundinicola leucocephala) 5 at Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999. 1 on a marsh near Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999.

346. Cock-tailed Tyrant (Alectrurus tricolor) 3 at Itirapina Reserve on 29/10/1999. 5 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

347. Streamer-tailed Tyrant (Gubernetes yetapa) 3 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 28/10/1999. 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

348. Yellow-browed Tyrant (Satrapa icterophrys) 1 on a marsh near Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

349. Long-tailed Tyrant (Colonia colonus) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 2 at Fazenda Capricornia, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 4 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 22/10/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

350. Cattle Tyrant (Machetornis rixosus) 1 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 2 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 4 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 27/10/1999.

351. Shear-tailed Grey-tyrant (Muscipipra vetula) 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999.

352. Rufous-tailed Attila (Attila phoenicurus) 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

353. Grey-hooded Attila (Attila rufus) 2 at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 to 31/10/1999. 1 at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

354. Greyish Mourner (Rhytipterna simplex) 1 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. 5 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999.

355. Sirystes (Sirystes sibilator) 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999.

356. Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Myiarchus tuberculifer) 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

357. Swainson's Flycatcher (Myiarchus swainsoni) 1 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999. 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999.

358. Short-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus ferox) 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999.

359. Brown-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus) 1 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

360. Large-headed Flatbill (Ramphotrigon megacephala) 1 heard at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 5 along both main trails at Itatiaia National Park on 06/11/1999.

361. Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) Common everwhere.

362. Fork-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus savana) 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 2 between Carmo and Serra dos Orgãos NP on 10/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia on 03/11/1999. 2 at Itirapina from 27/10/1999 until 28/10/1999. c.6 at Itirapina Reserve from 27/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

363. Variegated Flycatcher (Empidonomus varius) 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999. 1 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999.

364. Boat-billed Flycatcher (Megarynchus pitangua) 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. Doubtless overlooked.

365. Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus) 3 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 3 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 until 02/11/1999. 1 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 5 at Itirapina from 27/10/1999 to 28/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999. c.6 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999. 1 at Sumidouro on 10/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

366. Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) 1 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999. 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 02/11/1999. 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 26/10/1999 until 27/10/1999. c.5 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 22/10/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 10/10/1999.

367. Piratic Flycatcher (Legatus leucophaius) 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 heard at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

368. Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 3 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 until 02/11/1999. 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 1 at Perequê on 02/11/1999. c.5 at Porto Seguro from 18/10/1999 until 19/10/1999. 2 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 27/10/1999. c.5 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999. 6 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 10/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 14/10/1999 to 15/10/1999.

369. Thrush-like Schiffornis [Manakin / Mourner] (Schiffornis turdinus) 1 along the Estrada Quinarão, Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

370. Greenish Schiffornis [Manakin / Mourner] (Schiffornis virescens) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

371. Green-backed Becard (Pachyramphus viridis) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999.

372. Chestnut-crowned Becard (Pachyramphus castaneus) 3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. 1 at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999. 3 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 10/10/1999.

373. Black-capped Becard (Pachyramphus marginatus) 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999. 4 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 16/10/1999.

374. Crested Becard (Pachyramphus validus) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 1 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999. 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

375. Black-tailed Tityra (Tityra cayana) 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

376. Black-crowned Tityra (Tityra inquisitor) 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. c.8 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

377. White-rumped Swallow (Tachycineta leucorrhoa) 1 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 2 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. c.10 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. c.8 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999.

378. Grey-breasted Martin (Progne chalybea) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 14/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Capricornia, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 2 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 27/10/1999. 1 at Perequê on 02/11/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999.

379. Blue-and-white Swallow (Notiochelidon cyanoleuca) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. c.15 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Capricornia, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. c.15 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 3 at Itirapina from 27/10/1999 until 28/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. c.5 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. Fairly common at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

380. Tawny-headed Swallow (Stelgidopteryx fucata) c.6 at Itirapina Reserve on 28/10/1999. 4 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999.

381. Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) 2 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999. 3 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 2 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. c.5 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia on 03/11/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 2 at Perequê on 02/11/1999. c.10 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999. 4 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. c.10 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. c.8 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. c.4 at Serra dos Orgãos - Sumidouro on 10/10/1999. c.4 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

382. Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

383. Hellmayr's Pipit (Anthus hellmayri) 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

384. Yellowish Pipit (Anthus lutescens) c.4 near Itirapina on 28/10/1999.

385. Ochre-breasted Pipit (Anthus nattereri) 1 seen well at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

386. Black-capped Donacobius (Donacobius atricapillus) 2 on a marsh near Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

387. Moustached Wren (Thryothorus genibarbis) 2 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

388. Southern House Wren (Troglodytes aedon musculus) 1 heard at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 2 at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 31/10/1999 until 02/11/1999. 1 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 2 at Porto Seguro from 18/10/1999 until 19/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

389. Chalk-browed Mockingbird (Mimus saturninus) 1 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. c.5 at Itirapina Reserve from 27/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 4 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999. 2 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 17/10/1999. 3 between Teresópolis and Nova Lombardia on 12/10/1999.

390. Rufous-brown Solitaire (Cichlopsis leucogenys) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999.

391. Yellow-legged Thrush (Platycichla flavipes) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. c.4 at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 until 01/11/1999. 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 4 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999. 1 at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 10/10/1999. 1 heard at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

392. Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus rufiventris) Common and widespread.

393. Pale-breasted Thrush (Turdus leucomelas) 1 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999.

394. Creamy-bellied Thrush (Turdus amaurochalinus) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. c.6 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 3 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 4 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

395. White-necked Thrush (Turdus albicollis albicollis) 3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 4 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999.

396. Long-billed Gnatwren (Ramphocaenus melanurus) 1 heard at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

397. Tropical Gnatcatcher (Polioptila plumbea plumbea) 4 at Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999.

398. Curl-crested Jay (Cyanocorax cristatellus) 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. c.5 in the town of São Roque de Minas on 25/10/1999.

399. Plush-crested Jay (Cyanocorax chrysops) c.3 at Itirapina Reserve on 29/10/1999. 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

400. House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) Seen in most towns and villages.

401. Rufous-browed Peppershrike (Cyclarhis gujanensis) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 10/10/1999.

402. Chivi (Red-eyed) Vireo (Vireo olivaceus chivi) 2 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 until 02/11/1999. 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. c.8 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999. 2 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

403. Grey-eyed Greenlet (Hylophilus amaurocephalus) 2 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

404. Rufous-crowned Greenlet (Hylophilus poicilotis) 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 02/11/1999. 3 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 4 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

405. Lemon-chested Greenlet (Hylophilus thoracicus) 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

406. Hooded Siskin (Carduelis magellanica) 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999.

407. Tropical Parula (Parula pitiayumi) 3 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999. 5 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999.

408. Masked Yellowthroat (Geothlypis aequinoctialis velata) 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

409. Golden-crowned Warbler (Basileuterus culicivorus) 5 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. c.16 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 11 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

410. White-bellied Warbler (Basileuterus hypoleucus) 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

411. White-rimmed Warbler (Basileuterus leucoblepharus) 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 06/11/1999. 5 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

412. Flavescent Warbler (Basileuterus flaveolus) 4 at Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999.

413. Neotropical River Warbler (Basileuterus rivularis) 3 at Corcovado, Ubatuba between 30/10/1999 and 31/10/1999.

414. Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 2 at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 31/10/1999 until 02/11/1999. 1 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 2 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 1 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. 3 at Porto Seguro from 18/10/1999 until 19/10/1999. 1 at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 10/10/1999. 2 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

415. Chestnut-vented Conebill (Conirostrum speciosum) 1 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 4 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999.

416. Brown Tanager (Orchesticus abeillei) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

417. Cinnamon Tanager (Schistochlamys ruficapillus) 7 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 27/10/1999. 3 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

418. White-banded Tanager (Neothraupis fasciata) 2 at Itirapina Reserve from 28/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 3 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

419. Magpie Tanager (Cissopis leveriana) 2 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 6 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 to 06/11/1999. 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

420. Chestnut-headed Tanager (Pyrrhocoma ruficeps) 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999.

421. Orange-headed Tanager (Thlypopsis sordida) 1 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999.

422. Rufous-headed Tanager (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) 4 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 16/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

423. Yellow-backed Tanager (Hemithraupis flavicollis) 5 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 16/10/1999.

424. Hooded Tanager (Nemosia pileata) 3 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999.

425. Olive-green Tanager (Orthogonys chloricterus) 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. c.9 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999.

426. Flame-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus cristatus) c.8 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 at Monte Pascoal National Park on 17/10/1999. 2 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

427. Ruby-crowned Tanager (Tachyphonus coronatus) 2 at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 31/10/1999 until 02/11/1999. 3 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 until 02/11/1999. 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 2 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. 8 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

428. White-lined Tanager (Tachyphonus rufus) 6 at Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999. 2 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999. 1 between Teresópolis and Nova Lombardia on 12/10/1999.

429. Black-goggled Tanager (Trichothraupis melanops) c.4 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 4 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. c.9 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. 4 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 22/10/1999. 6 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

430. Red-crowned Ant-tanager (Habia rubica) 4 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. c.6 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

431. Hepatic Tanager (Piranga flava) 1 female at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 2 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

432. Brazilian Tanager (Ramphocelus bresilius) 1 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. c.5 at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 until 01/11/1999. 3 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. c.6 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 until 02/11/1999. c.5 at Praia Seca on 07/11/1999. 2 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999.

433. Sayaca Tanager (Thraupis sayaca) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 14/10/1999. c.4 at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 until 02/11/1999. 4 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 6 at Itirapina from 27/10/1999 until 28/10/1999. 2 at Itirapina Reserve from 28/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 1 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. 6 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 4 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova from 20/10/1999 until 22/10/1999. 5 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 16/10/1999.

434. Azure-shouldered Tanager (Thraupis cyanoptera) 3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999.

435. Golden-chevroned Tanager (Thraupis ornata) 8 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 13/10/1999 until 14/11/1999. 4 at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 until 31/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 02/11/1999. c.10 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. 14 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999. 2 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 16/10/1999. 4 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

436. Palm Tanager (Thraupis palmarum) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 3 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 3 at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 30/10/1999 until 01/11/1999. 2 at Fazenda Capricornia, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 27/10/1999. 1 at Museu de Ruschi, Santa Teresa on 13/10/1999. c.15 at Porto Seguro from 18/10/1999 until 19/10/1999. 4 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 16/10/1999.

437. Diademed Tanager (Stephanophorus diadematus) c.9 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) from 02/11/1999 until 03/11/1999. 5 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

438. Fawn-breasted Tanager (Pipraeidea melanonota) 3 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

439. Purple-throated Euphonia (Euphonia chlorotica) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999. 2 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 21/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

440. Violaceous Euphonia (Euphonia violacea) 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 3 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999.

441. Orange-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster) 2 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 male at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999.

442. Chestnut-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia pectoralis) 1 along the Três Picos Trail, Itatiaia National Park on 06/11/1999. 1 at Fazenda Capricornia, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999.

443. Blue-naped Chlorophonia (Chlorophonia cyanea) 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999.

444. Green-headed Tanager (Tangara seledon) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 13/10/1999. 4 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 4 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. c.6 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 at Fazenda Capricornia, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 4 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. c.2 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999. 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

445. Red-necked Tanager (Tangara cyanocephala) c.12 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. c.10 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 5 at Corcovado, Ubatuba between 30/10/1999 and 31/10/1999.

446. Brassy-breasted Tanager (Tangara desmaresti) c.10 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. c.16 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 06/11/1999. Fairly common at Serra dos Orgãos National Park from 09/10/1999 until 11/10/1999.

447. Gilt-edged Tanager (Tangara cyanoventris) Fairly common at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 3 at Itatiaia National Park on 04/11/1999. 4 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 1 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

448. Burnished-buff Tanager (Tangara cayana) 3 at Boa Nova (dry forest) from 20/10/1999 until 21/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999. 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 1 at Sumidouro on 10/10/1999.

449. Silvery-breasted (Opal-rumped) Tanager (Tangara velia cyanomelaena) 2 at Monte Pascoal National Park on 17/10/1999. 2 at Porto Seguro on 18/10/1999.

450. Blue Dacnis (Dacnis cayana) 3 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 3 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 1 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. 2 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 1 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999. 2 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999. 1 at Santa Lucia Reserve on 13/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 09/10/1999. c.10 at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 15/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

451. Green Honeycreeper (Chlorophanes spiza) 4 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 13/10/1999. 1 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999.

452. Red-legged Honeycreeper (Cyanerpes cyaneus) 3 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 15/10/1999.

453. Swallow Tanager (Tersina viridis) 1 male at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 02/11/1999. 4 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 26/10/1999.

454. Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) Encountered at most sites.

455. Grassland Sparrow (Ammodramus humeralis) 2 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 4 at Itirapina Reserve from 27/10/1999 to 28/10/1999. 4 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

456. Red-cowled Cardinal (Paroaria dominicana) c.8 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999. 3 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999.

457. Black-masked Finch (Coryphaspiza melanotis) 1 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999.

458. Grey Pileated-finch (Coryphospingus pileatus) 1 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999.

459. Red Pileated-finch (Coryphospingus cucullatus) 2 at Itirapina Reserve on 28/10/1999.

460. Uniform Finch (Haplospiza unicolor) 1 male along the Três Picos Trail, Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999.

461. Bay-chested Warbling-finch (Poospiza thoracica) c.4 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 6 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999.

462. Red-rumped Warbling-finch (Poospiza lateralis) 5 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999.

463. Cinereous Warbling-finch (Poospiza cinerea) 3 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

464. Stripe-tailed Yellow-finch (Sicalis citrina) 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999.

465. Saffron Finch (Sicalis flaveola) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 3 between Serra dos Orgãos and Sumidouro on 10/10/1999. 1 between Teresópolis and Nova Lombardia on 12/10/1999.

466. Misto (Grassland) Yellow-finch (Sicalis luteola luteiventris) c.40 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999.

467. Wedge-tailed Grass-finch (Emberizoides herbicola) c.6 at Itirapina Reserve from 27/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. 1 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 25/10/1999. 2 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

468. Pale-throated Serra-finch (Embernagra longicauda) 2 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

469. Blue-black Grassquit (Volatinia jacarina) 6 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. c.6 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. c.12 at Itirapina Reserve from 28/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. c.8 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 26/10/1999 until 27/10/1999. 2 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

470. Yellow-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila nigricollis) 2 at Boa Nova (dry forest) on 20/10/1999. c.15 at Porto Seguro from 18/10/1999 until 19/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 2 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999.

471. Dubois' Seedeater (Sporophila ardesiaca) 1 male at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 male at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

472. Double-collared Seedeater (Sporophila caerulescens) c.4 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 2 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 3 at Fazenda Capricornia, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 2 at Itirapina from 27/10/1999 until 28/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 29/10/1999. 4 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 1 at Sooretama Biological Reserve on 16/10/1999.

473. White-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila leucoptera) 1 male by a marsh near Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

474. Capped Seedeater (Sporophila bouvreuil) c.8 at Itirapina Reserve from 27/10/1999 until 28/10/1999.

475. Tawny-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila hypoxantha) 1 male at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 3 at Itirapina Reserve on 28/10/1999.

476. Blackish-blue Seedeater (Amaurospiza moesta) 1 male along the Três Picos Trail, Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999.

477. Yellow-green Grosbeak (Caryothraustes canadensis) 2 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999.

478. Black-throated Grosbeak (Pitylus fuliginosus) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 14/10/1999.

479. Buff-throated Saltator (Saltator maximus) c.5 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. from 12/10/1999 until 14/10/1999.

480. Green-winged Saltator (Saltator similis) 1 at Augusto Ruschi Biological Res. on 12/10/1999. 3 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 4 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) on 03/11/1999. 3 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 2 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. 2 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 11/10/1999.

481. Thick-billed Saltator (Saltator maxillosus) c.5 at Itatiaia NP (Agulhas Negras Rd) from 02/11/1999 until 03/11/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999.

482. Black-throated Saltator (Saltator atricollis) 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 28/10/1999. 4 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 27/10/1999. 1 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

483. Yellow-billed Blue Finch (Porphyrospiza caerulescens) 4 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

484. Crested Oropendola (Psarocolius decumanus) 1 at Camaca on 19/10/1999. 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 2 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. c.6 at Serra da Canastra National Pk on 26/10/1999. 1 at Serra dos Orgãos National Park on 10/10/1999. 2 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

485. Yellow-rumped Cacique (Cacicus cela) 2 at Camaca on 19/10/1999.

486. Red-rumped Cacique (Cacicus haemorrhous) c.5 at Corcovado, Ubatuba from 31/10/1999 until 01/11/1999. c.4 at Fazenda Rio José, Carmo on 10/10/1999. c.4 at Folca Seca, Ubatuba on 31/10/1999. 2 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. 2 at Monte Pascoal National Park on 17/10/1999. 4 at Porto Seguro from 18/10/1999 until 19/10/1999. Fairly common at Sooretama Biological Reserve from 14/10/1999 until 17/10/1999.

487. Golden-winged Cacique (Cacicus chrysopterus) 2 at Itatiaia National Park on 05/11/1999. 2 at Trilha do Rio Ipiringa, Ubatuba on 01/11/1999.

488. Chestnut-capped Blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus) c.30 at Boa Nova on 20/10/1999.

489. White-browed Blackbird (Leistes superciliaris) c.7 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. 1 at Itirapina Reserve on 27/10/1999. 1 at Porto Seguro on 19/10/1999.

490. Yellow-rumped Marshbird (Pseudoleistes guirahuro) 1 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 2 at Itirapina on 28/10/1999. c.6 at Itirapina Reserve from 28/10/1999 until 29/10/1999. c.13 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 until 27/10/1999. 3 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999.

491. Chopi Blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi) 9 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 25/10/1999 to 26/10/1999.

492. Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) 8 at Caraça National Park on 23/10/1999. 1 at Corcovado, Ubatuba on 02/11/1999. 2 at Fazenda Capricornia, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 3 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on 30/10/1999. 3 at Itatiaia National Park from 04/11/1999 until 05/11/1999. 2 at Serra da Canastra National Pk from 26/10/1999 until 27/10/1999. c.3 at Serra do Cipó National Park on 24/10/1999. c.15 at Serra do Ouricana, Boa Nova on 22/10/1999. 2 between Teresópolis and Nova Lombardia on 12/10/1999.


Copyright © 1992-2012 John Wall