THREATENED PARROTS OF LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN -- A BRIEF REVIEW AND
SUMMARY OF CONSERVATION STATUS
American Bird Conservancy
1 June 1998
[Compiled by Michael Parr from other publications, especially the Americas
Red Data Book, Birds to Watch II, and Parrots, by A. Juniper & M. Parr (Yale U.
P. and Pica Press), with additional feedback from Alejandro Grajal, Jamie
Gilardi, Mike Reynolds, and Don Bruning. This annotated list was produced to
give guidance to applicants to the ABC Small Grants Fund for Parrots, a one-year
program with a deadline of 27 September 1998, which is designed to follow-up on
the IUCN Parrot Action Plan which will be published later this year. Application
forms for the grant program can be obtained by e-mail to
Hyacinth Macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)
Savannas with palm stands. Scattered through parts of Brazil, Bolivia and
Paraguay. Illegal trade is main problem, but hunting and habitat loss are also
issues. World population c. 3,000. Programs to educate landowners in protection
of macaws and macaw habitat have begun and need to be continued. Replanting of
food trees and provision of artificial nest boxes could help. Occurs in Pantanal
National Park (barely in the north), and Araguaia National Park, Brazil.
Protected under Brazilian Law. More surveys needed to establish location of all
Lear's Macaw Anodorhynchus leari (CRITICAL - CITES APPENDIX I)
Cliff nester. Feeds in palm stands. Small range in Brazil. Destruction of
feeding trees as well as trade and hunting are issues. World population probably
less than 80 birds. Environmental education project is underway at present. 1992
workshop identified need for mapping habitat, fencing off key areas, planting
licuri palms, possibly also artificial nest holes and feeding stations.
Monitoring and wardening should be increased. Further population surveys also
possibly useful. A reserve establishment plan has been developed. Involved
agencies include IBAMA, Conservation International, Fundação Biodiversitas.
Protected under Brazilian Law. Birds at least for some of the time occur within
the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station (breeding cliffs within reserve).
Glaucous Macaw Anodorhynchus glaucus
For more information on Anodorhynchus, see
The Blue Macaws.
Spix's Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii (EXTINCT - CITES APPENDIX I)
Extinct. Requires new initiative to re-introduce captive birds.
Blue-throated Macaw Ara glaucogularis (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)
Seasonally inundated savannas with palm stands. Small range in Bolivia.
Illegal trade is main problem. World population probably 150 max. Projects
underway by Armonia and Wildlife Conservation Society.
Military Macaw Ara militaris (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)
Canyon forest, forest including rainforest, arid pine-oak forest. Large range
including Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina.
Habitat loss and trade. No accurate population data. El Cielo Biosphere Reserve
in Mexico, in Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve, Cuixmala Ecological Reserve (also
at El Carricito). In Venezuela in Henri Pittier National Park, El Avila,
Guatupo, Sierra de Perija. In Bolivia in Amboro National Park (south edge), and
Madidi National Park. Projects involve PROVITA and Venezuela Audubon
potentially. Birds still smuggled into US from Mexico.
Great Green Macaw Ara ambigua (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)
Mainly in humid lowland forest. Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama,
Colombia, Ecuador. Habitat loss main problem, but also trapping for trade and
probably hunting for food. Occurs in Darien Biosphere Reserve (Panama), Rio
Platano Biosphere Reserve (Honduras), and Cotocachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve,
Machalilla National Park, and Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco (Ecuador). Nomadic
so would need additional areas to preserve population. Rio Platano Biosphere
Reserve in Honduras as well as the Boswas and Indio-Maiz Reserves in Nicaragua
remain under threat. Protected in Costa Rica but large scale trapping continues,
remaining populations on private lands. More education work needed in Ecuador to
prevent poaching, Fundación Pro-Bosque and Fundación Natura are working with the
species. There is special concern for the sub-species A. a. guayaquilensis.
Red-fronted Macaw Ara rubrogenys (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)
Scrubby valleys and flood plains from 1,100-2,500m. Bolivia. Destroyed as
pest and habitat loss and trade are issues. No accurate population data. Small
numbers within Amboro National Park. In early 1990s WWF-Denmark funded
educational poster about the species. American Federation of Aviculture also
proposed project for this species. A package of measures including field
censuses, site protection, enforcement, education, habitat restoration, and
community development assistance would be a useful contribution to the future of
Blue-winged Macaw Propyrrhura maracana (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)
Gallery forest and forest edge. Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. Steep decline
probably due to habitat loss. Coming back in one area of Rio de Janeiro state.
No accurate population data.
Golden Conure Guaruba guarouba (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)
Amazon basin of Brazil. Four of five localities close to or within the Gurupi
Biological Reserve, and Amazônia National Park. Main threats still habitat
destruction and trapping. No accurate population data. Protected under Brazilian
law. Gurupi Biological Reserve is still not adequately protected and needs
demarcation and wardening. Fieldwork is needed to ascertain the population size
and range limits, locate other populations, and clarify ecological requirements.
Amazônia National Park probably needs better protection.
Socorro Parakeet Aratinga brevipes (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)
Socorro Island, Mexico. Forest above 500m. Recent decline because of habitat
loss due to excessive sheep grazing. Cat predation may also be a threat.
Population 4-500 birds in 1992.
Cuban Conure Aratinga euops (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)
Savanna and forest edge near primary forest in Cuba. Decline because of
excessive trapping, some habitat loss and persecution as a pest. Appears to be
dependent on dead palms for nesting. Extinct Isle of Pines c. 1913. Occurs in
few protected areas principally Cienaga de Zapata National Park, and Cupeyal
Nature Reserve. Population perhaps as low as 1,300 individuals. protected. More
information needed on biological requirements and distribution, especially its
breeding ecology and representation and dependence on protected areas. More
habitat almost certainly needs to be protected.
Hispaniolan Conure Aratinga chloroptera (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)
Upland pine forest, arid lowland forest and palm savanna of Haiti and the
Dominican Republic. Continuing decline due to habitat destruction, some trade,
and most significantly, through persecution as a crop pest. Possibly extinct in
Haiti, probably in Dominican Republic only in a few upland areas such as
Cordillera Central (Sierra de Baoruco). Possibly self-sustaining feral
populations in Puerto Rico and Florida. Protected in Dominican Republic but
little if any enforcement. No population estimates.
Golden-capped Conure Aratinga auricapilla (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)
Semi-deciduous forest and adjacent open areas through wide range in
central-eastern Brazil. Suffers from habitat clearance and probably domestic
trade. No population estimates. Stronghold in Minas Gerais e.g. Rio Doce State
Park and Caratinga reserve . Also Monte Pascoal National Park in Bahia (and a
few other protected areas). Not protected in Brazil. Surveys of habitat,
populations and ecological requirements in existing populations and in areas
where birds may occur are needed.
Golden-plumed Parrot Leptosittaca branickii (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)
Very local in temperate Andean forests of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru from
2,400-3,000m. Widespread records. Nomadic and therefore difficult to conserve or
monitor. Apparently dependent on Podocarpus cones. Decline due to habitat loss.
Occurs in a number of protected areas including Parque Nacional (PN) Purace
(Colombia), PN Podocarpus (Ecuador), and PN Manu (Peru). World population
uncertain, probably in thousands. More survey work needed in Peru to establish
range, as well as feeding ecology and reasons for apparent nomadism. Accurate
range map and action to protect key sites also needed.
Yellow-eared Parrot Ognorhynchus icterotis (CRITICAL - CITES APPENDIX I)
Mainly dependent on now rare Wax Palm and close to extinction. Mainly
2,500-3,000m. Possibly few small populations in Colombia (Cerro Munchique
region) and recently in Ecuador where efforts to conserve the birds are underway
by CECIA (land purchase). Recorded from PN Cueva de los Guacharos (Colombia) and
Cotocachi-Cayapas reserve (Ecuador). Proposal from Herencia Verde for
conservation of Wax Palms in Colombia remains part-funded. More surveys in
Colombian range and better protection of Cotocachi-Cayapas reserve needed.
Thick-billed Parrot Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX
Pine-oak forest of the Sierra Madre Occidental, northwest Mexico. Heavily
dependent on snags for nesting and habitat clearance is a major threat. Requires
protection of key sites and development of management plans for forests within
range. Some work underway by Pronatura Nureste and CIPAMEX. No protected areas
within range. Original work funded by Biodiversity Support Program, National
Fish and Wildlife Foundation, RARE. World Parks Endowment and Beneficia
Foundation also have helped. Snag management plan within range an urgent
priority as is the creation of one or more protected areas.
Maroon-fronted Parrot Rhynchopsitta terrisi (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)
Pine specialist in Sierra Madre Oriental of northern Mexico. Cliff-nester and
key site, El Taray is under government protection. Also in Cumbres de Monterrey
National Park. Roves for pine seeds. Study to establish management needs outside
breeding sites possibly useful.
Blue-throated Conure Pyrrhura cruentata (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)
Atlantic forests of Brazil where it has declined drastically through habitat
clearance. At risk from forest fragmentation and probable inability to move
between widely spaced fragments. Recorded from Monte Pascoal National Park, also
in Minas Gerais in Rio Doce State Park, Caratinga Reserve, also in N. Espírito
Santo including Córrego Grande, Sooretama, and Linhares Biological Reserves
(stronghold). Surveys to locate new populations are needed, and to establish if
the species can survive in cacao plantations.
Santa Marta Conure Pyrrhura viridicata (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)
Endemic to sub-tropical forests of the Santa Marta massif, northeast
Colombia, where most habitat is protected, but 85% has been cleared for drug
production and then treated with herbicides to remove the drug plants.
El Oro Conure Pyrrhura orcesi (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)
Moist cloud forest in upper tropical zone from 600-1,300m also perhaps
associated cultivated habitats. Tiny range in southern Ecuador. Decline due to
habitat loss, and although no protected areas within range, still relatively
large amounts of intact habitat available. Urgent need to develop and demarcate
a protected area for this species.
White-breasted Conure Pyrrhura albipectus (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)
Southeast Ecuador in humid forest in upper tropical zone. Probably resident
and if so, would be effectively protected by Podocarpus National Park where it
is locally common. Also in Shuar Indian reserves in Cordillera de Cutuc· and Rio
Nangaritza Valley (not seen in 1994). Some local trade and habitat clearance
could be problematic. Threats to protected areas, especially mining and
settlement continue to be problematic. Fundación Natura working on an management
plan for Podocarpus. Work with Shuar people to keep visitors away from their
lands and to prevent poaching would be useful.
Brown-breasted Conure Pyrrhura calliptera (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)
Upper subtropical and temperate humid forest from 1,800-3,000m of eastern
Colombian Andes. Habitat clearance presents a threat but remaining habitat in
Boyaca gives the species a chance. Present in Chingaza National Park and nearby
Carpanta Biological Reserve. Rio Blanco Reserve needs additional support.
Further surveys, especially in Pisba National Park and Sierra Nevada de Cocuy
National Park should be conducted to try to locate additional populations. Also
general ecological information and further surveys in the Monterredondo area
where the species was recently recorded.
Rufous-fronted Parakeet Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons (ENDANGERED - CITES
High slopes on central Andes of Colombia in upper temperate and lower paramo
mostly above 3,200m. Most habitat in range has been severely altered by grazing,
cutting and burning. Birds occur in protected areas though including Alto
Quindeo Acaime Reserve and Los Nevados National Park (stronghold), although
grazing may pose a threat to the latter. Kept as pets locally.
Yellow-faced Parrotlet Forpus xanthops (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)
Open lightly wooded habitats in upper Rio Marañón Valley, northern Peru.
Poorly know. Grazing and high level of trapping are problematic. Surveyed in
1988 by Riveros Salcedo et al, funded by American Federation of Aviculture.
Study of species to develop a management plan, along with some education and
enforcement are needed.
Brown-backed Parrotlet Touit melanonota (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX II)
Lower humid montane forest of southeast Brazil. Potentially at risk from
forest clearance. Occurs in Tijuca National Park, Corcovado Mountain Forest,
Serra do Mar State Park, Itatiaia National Park. Trade not really an issue.
Needs more surveys to look for and confirm presence of species as well as
enhanced protection of forests in existing range.
Golden-tailed Parrotlet Touit surda (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX II)
Atlantic forests of eastern Brazil where it has suffered from extensive
lowland forest clearance. In Pedra Talhada Biological Reserve, Monte Pascoal
National Park, Linhares and Sooretama Reserves, Desengano State Park, Ilha do
Cardoso State Park. Trade not really an issue. Field surveys and better
protection for existing sites are needed.
Spot-winged Parrotlet Touit stictoptera (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)
Mainly in humid subtropical forest in scattered populations from central
Colombia to northern Peru. Habitat clearance may have extirpated the species
from Colombia except perhaps from the Cordillera Macarena where there is an
National Park. Recorded from Sangay National Park and the Cayambe-Cocoa
Ecological Reserve in Ecuador (sympatric with White-breasted Conure Pyrrhura
albipectus in Cordillera de Cutuc·).
Rusty-faced Parrot Hapalopsittaca amazonia (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX II)
Cloud and subtropical forests in Andes from Venezuela through Colombia to N.
Ecuador (one record). Large scale habitat clearance across range. Occurs in a
few protected areas but even these are often threatened e.g. by mining, as in
the case of El Tama National Park, Venezuela. Also recorded from Sierra Nevada
National Park (needs management plan), Venezuela, as well as Chingaza National
Park, Purace National Park, and Cueva de los Guacharos National Park in
Colombia. Surveys to establish whether existing National Park network is
sufficient for the species' survival are needed (popn. census, habitat
requirements and biology). No work presently underway but PROVITA includes the
species in one of its programs.
Fuerte's Parrot Hapalopsittaca fuertesi (CRITICAL - CITES APPENDIX II)
Cloud forest from 2,600-3,100m in Colombian Andes. Only with certainty in two
reserves: Alto Quindeo Acaime Natural Reserve and the Cañon del Quindeo Natural
Reserve. Need surveys to establish if the species occurs in the Los Nevadis
National Park and adjacent Navarco Nature Reserve. Severe deforestation
elsewhere in range. Surveys of other potential habitat and ecological study to
discover whether the species has been displaced by Rusty-faced Parrot
Hapalopsittaca amazonia could also be useful.
Red-faced Parrot Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX II)
Upper montane forest in S. Ecuador into N. Peru. At risk from habitat loss
and fragmentation. Occurs in Sangay National Park, Morona Santiago and
Podocarpus National Park. Stronghold in unprotected forest patches of the
Cordillera de Chilla (e.g. between Selva Alegre and Manu - N.B. this area also
needs to be searched for Golden-plumed Parrot Leptosittaca branickii). World
population possibly as low as 500 birds. Stronger protection of Podocarpus
National Park is a must for this and for Golden-plumed Parrot Leptosittaca
branickii and White-breasted Conure Pyrrhura albipectus. Surveys to locate
additional populations would also be useful. Selva-Alegre on the Sagaguro-Manu
Road (Ecuador) has a sedentary population occupying a community-owned
conservation area but this is a small forest under heavy pressure from clearance
for grazing (also in some other nearby forest patches).
Black-billed Amazon Amazona agilis (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)
Mid-montane limestone forest of Jamaica, especially John Crown Mountains.
Habitat loss, hurricane threat and illegal capture are main threats.
Puerto Rican Amazon Amazona vittata (CRITICAL - CITES APPENDIX I)
Now only in moist montane forest (Luquillo Forest, east PR). Drastic decline
due to habitat loss, hunting and taking for pets. Existing range within
Caribbean National Forest. Intensive management underway. Conservation program
helped population rise to 48 birds in the wild and 87 in captivity by 1996. Aim
is for two populations through captive reintroduction including one at Rio
Abajo. USFWS, US Forest Service and the PR Dept. of Natural Resources are, or
have all been at some point involved in the work. Disease and competition with
introduced species may also be factors. Vulnerable to hurricane damage. The
species is protected in PR.
Red-spectacled Amazon Amazona pretrei (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)
Largely confined to Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil (few records from
Argentina and Paraguay). Heavily dependent on Araucária forest for large roosts
outside breeding season (appears to be nomadic/dispersive). Decline due to
trapping, hunting and habitat destruction. Entire population may on occasion
roost in Araucárias at Aracuri-Esmeralda Ecological Station. Also occurs in
numbers at Carazinho State Park. Studies to establish the year-round
conservation needs of the species are required.
Green-cheeked Amazon Amazona viridigenalis (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)
Only in northeast Mexico, sometimes reaching Texas in winter. Forest from
tropical lowlands to more arid pine-oak upland forest. Feral populations in the
USA (inc. Puerto Rico), and Monterrey. Trapping, persecution as a crop pest and
habitat loss main factors in decline. Stronghold in Río Sabinas Valley,
Tamaulipas. Occurs also in El Cielo Biosphere Reserve. Requires suite of actions
including surveys, site protection and management and local education campaigns.
Action underway involving the Center for the Study of Tropical Birds.
Red-browed Amazon Amazona rhodocorytha (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)
Confined to Brazilian Atlantic forest where it has declined steeply due
mainly to habitat loss and trade. Populations in some protected areas including
Desengano State Park, Monte Pascoal National Park, Rio Doce State Park,
Sooretama and Linhares Reserves, and Bocaina National Park. Education campaign
to stop hunting and trapping needed. Major survey of remaining Brazilian
Atlantic forests for all threatened parrots is needed. Vulnerability of parrots
outside protected areas should be assessed. Porto Seguro Reserve needs stronger
protection, as do areas around Desengano State Park and Ilha Grande.
Red-tailed Amazon Amazona brasiliensis (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)
Lowland coastal forest and forested wetlands of southeast Brazil. Rapid
habitat loss through coastal development has caused steep decline. Further
threats from housing developments to Ilha Comprida. Small proportion of birds
occur in protected areas e.g. Ilha do Cardoso. Illegal trade serious problem as
well as marginal issue with hunting for food and coastal development. Education
and monitoring programs needed. More vigilance needed for protected areas in the
species' range and the Ilha Pinheiro should be included in the adjacent
Superagui National Park.
Yellow-faced Amazon Amazona xanthops (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)
Cerrado of Brazil. Apparently occurs at low densities across range with
numbers and movements poorly known. Habitat loss and trapping for trade main
problems. Occurs in some protected areas but nomadic tendencies will limit
Yellow-shouldered Amazon Amazona barbadensis (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)
Endemic to N. Venezuela, and some offshore islands (inc. Bonaire, Netherlands
Antilles). Dry scrub and associated woodland. Marginal occurrence in protected
areas and lack of enforcement to block illegal (mainly local) trade are
principal problems. Locally common in parts of Falcón and Anzoategui. Coastal
development is a problem. Mainland populations should be surveyed; local
education and habitat protection efforts strengthened or initiated.
Yellow-headed Amazon Amazona oratrix (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX II)
Range of habitats in Mexico, Belize, Honduras, Guatemala. Feral in Miami and
PR. Severely depleted by habitat loss and trade. Probably continued smuggling
across US border. Species requires protected area establishment in Mexico and
upgrade to CITES Appendix I. Population on Tres Marias Islands needs
conservation plan. WCS, TRAFFIC-US, USFWS, and the Center for the Study of
Tropical Birds all involved in conservation work. Populations in the Rio Bravo
Conservation and Management Area, and Monkey Bay Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize.
Some shooting of birds in citrus plantations. Belize Audubon working on
education programs for the species, as well as advocating captive banding and
registration to help identify illegally caught birds. Evaluation of status of
wild populations is worthwhile. Surveys and development of reserves in Mexico
needed. The most popular and sought-after Amazon in trade.
Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)
Tropical and sub-tropical mixed evergreen forest of Brazil, Argentina, and
Paraguay. Large scale decline due to habitat loss, trade and some hunting (in
past). Stronghold in forested parts of São Paulo and Paraná. Need to establish
whether other areas hold birds and discover more about its ecological needs.
Occurs in Mbaracayu National Park, Paraguay; Caratinga, Brazil. Sympatric with
Golden-capped Conure Aratinga auricapilla near Valenca, Rio de Janeiro.
St Lucia Amazon Amazona versicolor (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)
Primary montane forest and nearby second growth of St Lucia. Main breeding
areas in protected forest. Education campaign by RARE and World Parrot Trust has
helped to eliminate hunting. Population in 1990 300-350 birds. Nest competition
with increasing Pearly-eyed Thrasher Margarops fuscatus is a possible problem
and needs to be investigated. Plantations in key areas should be allowed to
revert to natural forest. Captive-bred birds held at Jersey Wildlife
Red-necked Amazon Amazona arausiaca (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)
Primary montane forest on the island of Dominica. Decline due to habitat
loss, hunting and trade. Local trapping for pets now controlled following
education campaign. Protected and main breeding area within Northern Forest
Reserve. Population around 500 in 1992. As with other Caribbean parrots,
hurricanes can be a factor in short-term population crashes. Methods for
protecting crops from damage could be helpful.
St Vincent Amazon Amazona guildingii (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)
Forests and occasionally associated cultivation on the island of St Vincent.
appears to have declined due to forest loss which now appears to have slowed.
Education work has helped eliminate hunting and trapping for trade. Protected by
domestic legislation and much of range within protected areas. Population still
very low with probably just 800 birds in 1994. CITES enforcement to return
illegally held birds to St Vincent a possible course of action. Habitat studies
and continuing support for education and enforcement by Forestry Division
needed. In-country captive-rearing underway.
Imperial Amazon Amazona imperialis (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)
Primary montane forests of Dominica. Population estimated at around 100 in
1993. Hunting and trapping much reduced thanks to education campaign. Part of
range within Northern Forest Reserve but other areas excluded and remain
vulnerable. Forestry Division of Dominica working to develop/implement
management plan. Land tenure dispute within proposed National Park. RARE, World
Parrot Trust and BirdLife International have all been involved. Further work on
ecology could help management.
Purple-bellied Parrot Triclaria malachitacea (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX II)
Atlantic forests of south-east Brazil and extreme N. Arg. Low densities and
population poorly known. Stronghold probably on east-facing slopes of Serra do
Mar, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Habitat loss main problem with some local and
international trade. Recorded in some protected areas, but given low population
densities, these are unlikely to be sufficient to protect the species. Probable
negative competition with man for fruits of palm Euterpe edulis. Study of
ecological requirements needed. Occurs in a number of reserves including
Sooretama. It remains to be proven that the species' year-round needs can be
catered to by existing protected areas although recent population estimates give
cause for optimism if the species can adapt to more fragmented habitats.
ADDITIONAL SPECIES/SUB-SPECIES OF CONSERVATION CONCERN
Scarlet Macaw Ara macao cyanoptera (subspecies occurring from SE Mexico to
Red-masked Conure Aratinga erythrogenys
Rose-crowned Conure Pyrrhura rhodecephala
Slender-billed Conure Enicognathus leptorhynchus
Grey-cheeked Parakeet Brotogeris pyrrhopterus
Amazonian Parrotlet Nannopsittaca dachilleae
Red-fronted Parrotlet Touit costaricensis
Red-capped Parrot Pionopsitta pileata
Saffron-headed Parrot Pionopsitta pyrilia
Yellow-billed Amazon Amazona collaria
Hispaniolan Amazon Amazona ventralis
Cuban Amazon Amazona leucocephala
Yellow-naped Amazon Amazona auropalliata
Lilac-crowned Amazon Amazona finschi
Blue-cheeked Amazon Amazona dufresniana
Collar, N. J. et al (1992) Threatened Birds of the Americas. ICBP, Cambridge
Juniper, A. & Parr, M. (1998) Parrots. Yale, New Haven
Collar, N. J. et al (1994) Birds to Watch II. BirdLife International, Cambridge
Grajal, A. et al (in prep.) Global Action Plan for Parrot Conservation, IUCN,