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THREATENED PARROTS OF LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN -- A BRIEF REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF CONSERVATION STATUS

American Bird Conservancy
1 June 1998

[Compiled by Michael Parr from other publications, especially the Americas Red Data Book, Birds to Watch II, and Parrots, by A. Juniper & M. Parr (Yale U. P. and Pica Press), with additional feedback from Alejandro Grajal, Jamie Gilardi, Mike Reynolds, and Don Bruning. This annotated list was produced to give guidance to applicants to the ABC Small Grants Fund for Parrots, a one-year program with a deadline of 27 September 1998, which is designed to follow-up on the IUCN Parrot Action Plan which will be published later this year. Application forms for the grant program can be obtained by e-mail to abc@abcbirds.org.]

Hyacinth Macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)

Savannas with palm stands. Scattered through parts of Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Illegal trade is main problem, but hunting and habitat loss are also issues. World population c. 3,000. Programs to educate landowners in protection of macaws and macaw habitat have begun and need to be continued. Replanting of food trees and provision of artificial nest boxes could help. Occurs in Pantanal National Park (barely in the north), and Araguaia National Park, Brazil. Protected under Brazilian Law. More surveys needed to establish location of all populations.

Lear's Macaw Anodorhynchus leari (CRITICAL - CITES APPENDIX I)

Cliff nester. Feeds in palm stands. Small range in Brazil. Destruction of feeding trees as well as trade and hunting are issues. World population probably less than 80 birds. Environmental education project is underway at present. 1992 workshop identified need for mapping habitat, fencing off key areas, planting licuri palms, possibly also artificial nest holes and feeding stations. Monitoring and wardening should be increased. Further population surveys also possibly useful. A reserve establishment plan has been developed. Involved agencies include IBAMA, Conservation International, Fundação Biodiversitas. Protected under Brazilian Law. Birds at least for some of the time occur within the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station (breeding cliffs within reserve).

Glaucous Macaw Anodorhynchus glaucus

Probably extinct.

For more information on Anodorhynchus, see The Blue Macaws.

Spix's Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii (EXTINCT - CITES APPENDIX I)

Extinct. Requires new initiative to re-introduce captive birds.

Blue-throated Macaw Ara glaucogularis (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)

Seasonally inundated savannas with palm stands. Small range in Bolivia. Illegal trade is main problem. World population probably 150 max. Projects underway by Armonia and Wildlife Conservation Society.

Military Macaw Ara militaris (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)

Canyon forest, forest including rainforest, arid pine-oak forest. Large range including Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina. Habitat loss and trade. No accurate population data. El Cielo Biosphere Reserve in Mexico, in Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve, Cuixmala Ecological Reserve (also at El Carricito). In Venezuela in Henri Pittier National Park, El Avila, Guatupo, Sierra de Perija. In Bolivia in Amboro National Park (south edge), and Madidi National Park. Projects involve PROVITA and Venezuela Audubon potentially. Birds still smuggled into US from Mexico.

Great Green Macaw Ara ambigua (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)

Mainly in humid lowland forest. Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador. Habitat loss main problem, but also trapping for trade and probably hunting for food. Occurs in Darien Biosphere Reserve (Panama), Rio Platano Biosphere Reserve (Honduras), and Cotocachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve, Machalilla National Park, and Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco (Ecuador). Nomadic so would need additional areas to preserve population. Rio Platano Biosphere Reserve in Honduras as well as the Boswas and Indio-Maiz Reserves in Nicaragua remain under threat. Protected in Costa Rica but large scale trapping continues, remaining populations on private lands. More education work needed in Ecuador to prevent poaching, Fundación Pro-Bosque and Fundación Natura are working with the species. There is special concern for the sub-species A. a. guayaquilensis.

Red-fronted Macaw Ara rubrogenys (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)

Scrubby valleys and flood plains from 1,100-2,500m. Bolivia. Destroyed as pest and habitat loss and trade are issues. No accurate population data. Small numbers within Amboro National Park. In early 1990s WWF-Denmark funded educational poster about the species. American Federation of Aviculture also proposed project for this species. A package of measures including field censuses, site protection, enforcement, education, habitat restoration, and community development assistance would be a useful contribution to the future of the species.

Blue-winged Macaw Propyrrhura maracana (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)

Gallery forest and forest edge. Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. Steep decline probably due to habitat loss. Coming back in one area of Rio de Janeiro state. No accurate population data.

Golden Conure Guaruba guarouba (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)

Amazon basin of Brazil. Four of five localities close to or within the Gurupi Biological Reserve, and Amazônia National Park. Main threats still habitat destruction and trapping. No accurate population data. Protected under Brazilian law. Gurupi Biological Reserve is still not adequately protected and needs demarcation and wardening. Fieldwork is needed to ascertain the population size and range limits, locate other populations, and clarify ecological requirements. Amazônia National Park probably needs better protection.

Socorro Parakeet Aratinga brevipes (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)

Socorro Island, Mexico. Forest above 500m. Recent decline because of habitat loss due to excessive sheep grazing. Cat predation may also be a threat. Population 4-500 birds in 1992.

Cuban Conure Aratinga euops (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)

Savanna and forest edge near primary forest in Cuba. Decline because of excessive trapping, some habitat loss and persecution as a pest. Appears to be dependent on dead palms for nesting. Extinct Isle of Pines c. 1913. Occurs in few protected areas principally Cienaga de Zapata National Park, and Cupeyal Nature Reserve. Population perhaps as low as 1,300 individuals. protected. More information needed on biological requirements and distribution, especially its breeding ecology and representation and dependence on protected areas. More habitat almost certainly needs to be protected.

Hispaniolan Conure Aratinga chloroptera (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)

Upland pine forest, arid lowland forest and palm savanna of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Continuing decline due to habitat destruction, some trade, and most significantly, through persecution as a crop pest. Possibly extinct in Haiti, probably in Dominican Republic only in a few upland areas such as Cordillera Central (Sierra de Baoruco). Possibly self-sustaining feral populations in Puerto Rico and Florida. Protected in Dominican Republic but little if any enforcement. No population estimates.

Golden-capped Conure Aratinga auricapilla (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)

Semi-deciduous forest and adjacent open areas through wide range in central-eastern Brazil. Suffers from habitat clearance and probably domestic trade. No population estimates. Stronghold in Minas Gerais e.g. Rio Doce State Park and Caratinga reserve . Also Monte Pascoal National Park in Bahia (and a few other protected areas). Not protected in Brazil. Surveys of habitat, populations and ecological requirements in existing populations and in areas where birds may occur are needed.

Golden-plumed Parrot Leptosittaca branickii (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)

Very local in temperate Andean forests of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru from 2,400-3,000m. Widespread records. Nomadic and therefore difficult to conserve or monitor. Apparently dependent on Podocarpus cones. Decline due to habitat loss. Occurs in a number of protected areas including Parque Nacional (PN) Purace (Colombia), PN Podocarpus (Ecuador), and PN Manu (Peru). World population uncertain, probably in thousands. More survey work needed in Peru to establish range, as well as feeding ecology and reasons for apparent nomadism. Accurate range map and action to protect key sites also needed.

Yellow-eared Parrot Ognorhynchus icterotis (CRITICAL - CITES APPENDIX I)

Mainly dependent on now rare Wax Palm and close to extinction. Mainly 2,500-3,000m. Possibly few small populations in Colombia (Cerro Munchique region) and recently in Ecuador where efforts to conserve the birds are underway by CECIA (land purchase). Recorded from PN Cueva de los Guacharos (Colombia) and Cotocachi-Cayapas reserve (Ecuador). Proposal from Herencia Verde for conservation of Wax Palms in Colombia remains part-funded. More surveys in Colombian range and better protection of Cotocachi-Cayapas reserve needed.

Thick-billed Parrot Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)

Pine-oak forest of the Sierra Madre Occidental, northwest Mexico. Heavily dependent on snags for nesting and habitat clearance is a major threat. Requires protection of key sites and development of management plans for forests within range. Some work underway by Pronatura Nureste and CIPAMEX. No protected areas within range. Original work funded by Biodiversity Support Program, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, RARE. World Parks Endowment and Beneficia Foundation also have helped. Snag management plan within range an urgent priority as is the creation of one or more protected areas.

Maroon-fronted Parrot Rhynchopsitta terrisi (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)

Pine specialist in Sierra Madre Oriental of northern Mexico. Cliff-nester and key site, El Taray is under government protection. Also in Cumbres de Monterrey National Park. Roves for pine seeds. Study to establish management needs outside breeding sites possibly useful.

Blue-throated Conure Pyrrhura cruentata (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)

Atlantic forests of Brazil where it has declined drastically through habitat clearance. At risk from forest fragmentation and probable inability to move between widely spaced fragments. Recorded from Monte Pascoal National Park, also in Minas Gerais in Rio Doce State Park, Caratinga Reserve, also in N. Espírito Santo including Córrego Grande, Sooretama, and Linhares Biological Reserves (stronghold). Surveys to locate new populations are needed, and to establish if the species can survive in cacao plantations.

Santa Marta Conure Pyrrhura viridicata (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)

Endemic to sub-tropical forests of the Santa Marta massif, northeast Colombia, where most habitat is protected, but 85% has been cleared for drug production and then treated with herbicides to remove the drug plants.

El Oro Conure Pyrrhura orcesi (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)

Moist cloud forest in upper tropical zone from 600-1,300m also perhaps associated cultivated habitats. Tiny range in southern Ecuador. Decline due to habitat loss, and although no protected areas within range, still relatively large amounts of intact habitat available. Urgent need to develop and demarcate a protected area for this species.

White-breasted Conure Pyrrhura albipectus (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)

Southeast Ecuador in humid forest in upper tropical zone. Probably resident and if so, would be effectively protected by Podocarpus National Park where it is locally common. Also in Shuar Indian reserves in Cordillera de Cutuc· and Rio Nangaritza Valley (not seen in 1994). Some local trade and habitat clearance could be problematic. Threats to protected areas, especially mining and settlement continue to be problematic. Fundación Natura working on an management plan for Podocarpus. Work with Shuar people to keep visitors away from their lands and to prevent poaching would be useful.

Brown-breasted Conure Pyrrhura calliptera (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)

Upper subtropical and temperate humid forest from 1,800-3,000m of eastern Colombian Andes. Habitat clearance presents a threat but remaining habitat in Boyaca gives the species a chance. Present in Chingaza National Park and nearby Carpanta Biological Reserve. Rio Blanco Reserve needs additional support. Further surveys, especially in Pisba National Park and Sierra Nevada de Cocuy National Park should be conducted to try to locate additional populations. Also general ecological information and further surveys in the Monterredondo area where the species was recently recorded.

Rufous-fronted Parakeet Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX II)

High slopes on central Andes of Colombia in upper temperate and lower paramo mostly above 3,200m. Most habitat in range has been severely altered by grazing, cutting and burning. Birds occur in protected areas though including Alto Quindeo Acaime Reserve and Los Nevados National Park (stronghold), although grazing may pose a threat to the latter. Kept as pets locally.

Yellow-faced Parrotlet Forpus xanthops (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)

Open lightly wooded habitats in upper Rio Marañón Valley, northern Peru. Poorly know. Grazing and high level of trapping are problematic. Surveyed in 1988 by Riveros Salcedo et al, funded by American Federation of Aviculture. Study of species to develop a management plan, along with some education and enforcement are needed.

Brown-backed Parrotlet Touit melanonota (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX II)

Lower humid montane forest of southeast Brazil. Potentially at risk from forest clearance. Occurs in Tijuca National Park, Corcovado Mountain Forest, Serra do Mar State Park, Itatiaia National Park. Trade not really an issue. Needs more surveys to look for and confirm presence of species as well as enhanced protection of forests in existing range.

Golden-tailed Parrotlet Touit surda (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX II)

Atlantic forests of eastern Brazil where it has suffered from extensive lowland forest clearance. In Pedra Talhada Biological Reserve, Monte Pascoal National Park, Linhares and Sooretama Reserves, Desengano State Park, Ilha do Cardoso State Park. Trade not really an issue. Field surveys and better protection for existing sites are needed.

Spot-winged Parrotlet Touit stictoptera (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)

Mainly in humid subtropical forest in scattered populations from central Colombia to northern Peru. Habitat clearance may have extirpated the species from Colombia except perhaps from the Cordillera Macarena where there is an National Park. Recorded from Sangay National Park and the Cayambe-Cocoa Ecological Reserve in Ecuador (sympatric with White-breasted Conure Pyrrhura albipectus in Cordillera de Cutuc·).

Rusty-faced Parrot Hapalopsittaca amazonia (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX II)

Cloud and subtropical forests in Andes from Venezuela through Colombia to N. Ecuador (one record). Large scale habitat clearance across range. Occurs in a few protected areas but even these are often threatened e.g. by mining, as in the case of El Tama National Park, Venezuela. Also recorded from Sierra Nevada National Park (needs management plan), Venezuela, as well as Chingaza National Park, Purace National Park, and Cueva de los Guacharos National Park in Colombia. Surveys to establish whether existing National Park network is sufficient for the species' survival are needed (popn. census, habitat requirements and biology). No work presently underway but PROVITA includes the species in one of its programs.

Fuerte's Parrot Hapalopsittaca fuertesi (CRITICAL - CITES APPENDIX II)

Cloud forest from 2,600-3,100m in Colombian Andes. Only with certainty in two reserves: Alto Quindeo Acaime Natural Reserve and the Cañon del Quindeo Natural Reserve. Need surveys to establish if the species occurs in the Los Nevadis National Park and adjacent Navarco Nature Reserve. Severe deforestation elsewhere in range. Surveys of other potential habitat and ecological study to discover whether the species has been displaced by Rusty-faced Parrot Hapalopsittaca amazonia could also be useful.

Red-faced Parrot Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX II)

Upper montane forest in S. Ecuador into N. Peru. At risk from habitat loss and fragmentation. Occurs in Sangay National Park, Morona Santiago and Podocarpus National Park. Stronghold in unprotected forest patches of the Cordillera de Chilla (e.g. between Selva Alegre and Manu - N.B. this area also needs to be searched for Golden-plumed Parrot Leptosittaca branickii). World population possibly as low as 500 birds. Stronger protection of Podocarpus National Park is a must for this and for Golden-plumed Parrot Leptosittaca branickii and White-breasted Conure Pyrrhura albipectus. Surveys to locate additional populations would also be useful. Selva-Alegre on the Sagaguro-Manu Road (Ecuador) has a sedentary population occupying a community-owned conservation area but this is a small forest under heavy pressure from clearance for grazing (also in some other nearby forest patches).

Black-billed Amazon Amazona agilis (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)

Mid-montane limestone forest of Jamaica, especially John Crown Mountains. Habitat loss, hurricane threat and illegal capture are main threats.

Puerto Rican Amazon Amazona vittata (CRITICAL - CITES APPENDIX I)

Now only in moist montane forest (Luquillo Forest, east PR). Drastic decline due to habitat loss, hunting and taking for pets. Existing range within Caribbean National Forest. Intensive management underway. Conservation program helped population rise to 48 birds in the wild and 87 in captivity by 1996. Aim is for two populations through captive reintroduction including one at Rio Abajo. USFWS, US Forest Service and the PR Dept. of Natural Resources are, or have all been at some point involved in the work. Disease and competition with introduced species may also be factors. Vulnerable to hurricane damage. The species is protected in PR.

Red-spectacled Amazon Amazona pretrei (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)

Largely confined to Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil (few records from Argentina and Paraguay). Heavily dependent on Araucária forest for large roosts outside breeding season (appears to be nomadic/dispersive). Decline due to trapping, hunting and habitat destruction. Entire population may on occasion roost in Araucárias at Aracuri-Esmeralda Ecological Station. Also occurs in numbers at Carazinho State Park. Studies to establish the year-round conservation needs of the species are required.

Green-cheeked Amazon Amazona viridigenalis (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)

Only in northeast Mexico, sometimes reaching Texas in winter. Forest from tropical lowlands to more arid pine-oak upland forest. Feral populations in the USA (inc. Puerto Rico), and Monterrey. Trapping, persecution as a crop pest and habitat loss main factors in decline. Stronghold in Río Sabinas Valley, Tamaulipas. Occurs also in El Cielo Biosphere Reserve. Requires suite of actions including surveys, site protection and management and local education campaigns. Action underway involving the Center for the Study of Tropical Birds.

Red-browed Amazon Amazona rhodocorytha (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)

Confined to Brazilian Atlantic forest where it has declined steeply due mainly to habitat loss and trade. Populations in some protected areas including Desengano State Park, Monte Pascoal National Park, Rio Doce State Park, Sooretama and Linhares Reserves, and Bocaina National Park. Education campaign to stop hunting and trapping needed. Major survey of remaining Brazilian Atlantic forests for all threatened parrots is needed. Vulnerability of parrots outside protected areas should be assessed. Porto Seguro Reserve needs stronger protection, as do areas around Desengano State Park and Ilha Grande.

Red-tailed Amazon Amazona brasiliensis (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)

Lowland coastal forest and forested wetlands of southeast Brazil. Rapid habitat loss through coastal development has caused steep decline. Further threats from housing developments to Ilha Comprida. Small proportion of birds occur in protected areas e.g. Ilha do Cardoso. Illegal trade serious problem as well as marginal issue with hunting for food and coastal development. Education and monitoring programs needed. More vigilance needed for protected areas in the species' range and the Ilha Pinheiro should be included in the adjacent Superagui National Park.

Yellow-faced Amazon Amazona xanthops (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX II)

Cerrado of Brazil. Apparently occurs at low densities across range with numbers and movements poorly known. Habitat loss and trapping for trade main problems. Occurs in some protected areas but nomadic tendencies will limit effectiveness.

Yellow-shouldered Amazon Amazona barbadensis (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)

Endemic to N. Venezuela, and some offshore islands (inc. Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles). Dry scrub and associated woodland. Marginal occurrence in protected areas and lack of enforcement to block illegal (mainly local) trade are principal problems. Locally common in parts of Falcón and Anzoategui. Coastal development is a problem. Mainland populations should be surveyed; local education and habitat protection efforts strengthened or initiated.

Yellow-headed Amazon Amazona oratrix (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX II)

Range of habitats in Mexico, Belize, Honduras, Guatemala. Feral in Miami and PR. Severely depleted by habitat loss and trade. Probably continued smuggling across US border. Species requires protected area establishment in Mexico and upgrade to CITES Appendix I. Population on Tres Marias Islands needs conservation plan. WCS, TRAFFIC-US, USFWS, and the Center for the Study of Tropical Birds all involved in conservation work. Populations in the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, and Monkey Bay Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize. Some shooting of birds in citrus plantations. Belize Audubon working on education programs for the species, as well as advocating captive banding and registration to help identify illegally caught birds. Evaluation of status of wild populations is worthwhile. Surveys and development of reserves in Mexico needed. The most popular and sought-after Amazon in trade.

Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX I)

Tropical and sub-tropical mixed evergreen forest of Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Large scale decline due to habitat loss, trade and some hunting (in past). Stronghold in forested parts of São Paulo and Paraná. Need to establish whether other areas hold birds and discover more about its ecological needs. Occurs in Mbaracayu National Park, Paraguay; Caratinga, Brazil. Sympatric with Golden-capped Conure Aratinga auricapilla near Valenca, Rio de Janeiro.

St Lucia Amazon Amazona versicolor (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)

Primary montane forest and nearby second growth of St Lucia. Main breeding areas in protected forest. Education campaign by RARE and World Parrot Trust has helped to eliminate hunting. Population in 1990 300-350 birds. Nest competition with increasing Pearly-eyed Thrasher Margarops fuscatus is a possible problem and needs to be investigated. Plantations in key areas should be allowed to revert to natural forest. Captive-bred birds held at Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust.

Red-necked Amazon Amazona arausiaca (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)

Primary montane forest on the island of Dominica. Decline due to habitat loss, hunting and trade. Local trapping for pets now controlled following education campaign. Protected and main breeding area within Northern Forest Reserve. Population around 500 in 1992. As with other Caribbean parrots, hurricanes can be a factor in short-term population crashes. Methods for protecting crops from damage could be helpful.

St Vincent Amazon Amazona guildingii (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)

Forests and occasionally associated cultivation on the island of St Vincent. appears to have declined due to forest loss which now appears to have slowed. Education work has helped eliminate hunting and trapping for trade. Protected by domestic legislation and much of range within protected areas. Population still very low with probably just 800 birds in 1994. CITES enforcement to return illegally held birds to St Vincent a possible course of action. Habitat studies and continuing support for education and enforcement by Forestry Division needed. In-country captive-rearing underway.

Imperial Amazon Amazona imperialis (VULNERABLE - CITES APPENDIX I)

Primary montane forests of Dominica. Population estimated at around 100 in 1993. Hunting and trapping much reduced thanks to education campaign. Part of range within Northern Forest Reserve but other areas excluded and remain vulnerable. Forestry Division of Dominica working to develop/implement management plan. Land tenure dispute within proposed National Park. RARE, World Parrot Trust and BirdLife International have all been involved. Further work on ecology could help management.

Purple-bellied Parrot Triclaria malachitacea (ENDANGERED - CITES APPENDIX II)

Atlantic forests of south-east Brazil and extreme N. Arg. Low densities and population poorly known. Stronghold probably on east-facing slopes of Serra do Mar, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Habitat loss main problem with some local and international trade. Recorded in some protected areas, but given low population densities, these are unlikely to be sufficient to protect the species. Probable negative competition with man for fruits of palm Euterpe edulis. Study of ecological requirements needed. Occurs in a number of reserves including Sooretama. It remains to be proven that the species' year-round needs can be catered to by existing protected areas although recent population estimates give cause for optimism if the species can adapt to more fragmented habitats.

ADDITIONAL SPECIES/SUB-SPECIES OF CONSERVATION CONCERN

Scarlet Macaw Ara macao cyanoptera (subspecies occurring from SE Mexico to Nicaragua)
Red-masked Conure Aratinga erythrogenys
Rose-crowned Conure Pyrrhura rhodecephala
Slender-billed Conure Enicognathus leptorhynchus
Grey-cheeked Parakeet Brotogeris pyrrhopterus
Amazonian Parrotlet Nannopsittaca dachilleae
Red-fronted Parrotlet Touit costaricensis
Red-capped Parrot Pionopsitta pileata
Saffron-headed Parrot Pionopsitta pyrilia
Yellow-billed Amazon Amazona collaria
Hispaniolan Amazon Amazona ventralis
Cuban Amazon Amazona leucocephala
Yellow-naped Amazon Amazona auropalliata
Lilac-crowned Amazon Amazona finschi
Blue-cheeked Amazon Amazona dufresniana

REFERENCES

Collar, N. J. et al (1992) Threatened Birds of the Americas. ICBP, Cambridge
Juniper, A. & Parr, M. (1998) Parrots. Yale, New Haven
Collar, N. J. et al (1994) Birds to Watch II. BirdLife International, Cambridge
Grajal, A. et al (in prep.) Global Action Plan for Parrot Conservation, IUCN, Gland


Copyright © 1992-2012 John Wall