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Southeast Peru Birding

8 May 8 - 1 June 2000

by Garry George

Participants:

Garry George, Joseph Brooks, Ed Craven (east slope and lowlands only)

Guides:

Colin Bushell for Manu Expeditions (main trip), Barry Walker for Manu Expeditions (extension)

References:

Handbook of Birds of the World (some plates only), Lynx Edicions

Birds of South America Vol. I and II, Ridgely & Tudor, University of Texas Press

Birds of Columbia, Hilty, Brown and Tudor, Princeton University Press

Itinerary:

Day 1 - LA - LIMA

Day 2 - LIMA - Cusco, Huacarpay Lakes (3020m) surface to Sacred Valley

Day 3, 4 - Abra Málaga - (4000m+) and Quillabamba Road (to 3200m)

Day 5 - Cusco to Manu Road to Pillahuata (2600m) with stops in Huancarani, Paucartambo, Tres Cruces, upper Mirador on Manu Road, overnight camping in Pillahuata

Day 6 - Manu Road from Pillahuata to San Pedro y Union Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge (1500m)

Day 7, 8 - San Pedro y Union Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge area (1500m)

Day 9 - San Pedo y Union to Atalya w/ stops at Patria, Pilcopata, boat to Amazonia Lodge

Day 10 - Boat to Atalaya, birding on road to Pilcopata (550m-900m)

Day 11, 12 - Amanazonia Lodge

Day 13 - Boat ride on Madre de Dios River to Manu Wildlife Center (7 hours)

Day 14 - 19 - Manu Wildlife Center area

Day 20 - afternoon flight from Boca Manu to Cusco

EXTENSION

Day 21 - flight to Lima, Lomas de Lanchay (300m)

Day 22 - Santa Eulalia Road above Huanico (2,500-3,000m)

Day 23 - Marcopomacocha (4500m+)

Day 24 - Lima to Pucusana with stops at Villa Marshes, San Pedro (sea level)

Day 25 - Lima - LA

Background and Overview

There are six habitat zones in Andean South America:

Polylepis forest above 3500m with polylepis trees

Puna from 3500m up

Temperate 2500-3500m

Subtropical 1500-2500m

Upper Tropical 500-1500m

Tropical 0-500m

The unique thing about the itinerary of this trip was the ability to spend time in all the habitat zones. The Manu Road from Cusco to Atalaya travels through all of the zones (except Polylepis forest) with prolonged stops at different elevations.

We spent one morning at Abra Málaga pass outside Cusco in Polylepis forest. This is the most critically endangered habitat in South America. There is a program of reforestation of this area initiated by Gunnar Engblom, Gregorio Ferro Meza and Constantino Aucca Chutas detailed on Mr. Engblom's website for his tour company Kolibri Expeditions. (netaccessperu.net/kolibri/ then select "Abra Málaga" from the bottom of the left frame). A donation to this valuable program would surely be welcome.

Three days in the stunted growth of the high Andes puna were spent. Two mornings were below and between the polylepis forest patches at Abra Málaga near Cusco and a day at Marcopomachocha, the highest altitude at over 4600 meters (just over 15,000 ft) five hours drive north from Lima where we hiked in bogs and ponds just below the snow line. Both expeditions yielded the rarest species.

The Temperate zone encompassing the treeline of both slopes were reached in drives from Cusco or Lima. The initial portion of the drive down Manu Road was especially interesting as the dry brown high altitude Puna and Temperate zones gave way to cloud forest. This was the most dramatic change in species of plants, mammals and birds. We began to see the first wild mammals here. Almost all the observations in this zone were made from the road which thankfully was not well travelled, but the trail behind Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge right on the transition between Subtropical and Upper Tropical zones was very productive and interesting. I would have liked to have penetrated the forest more in that area.

Diversity of bird, mammal, insect and plant species was greatest in the Tropical lowland humid forest at the base of the east slope on the western edge of the Amazon basin along the Madre de Dios River where we spent the most time just outside of Manu National Park, the largest park in South America. The environment is absolutely incredible. Memorable were the sunsets over the river, the flights of hundreds of Sand-colored Nightjars in the sunset light taking off from their roost on the river island, the towering ceiba trees with strangler figs and lianas, the sounds of the forest and the dreams while sleeping in it, the night at the tapir lick, the long boat rides at the end of the day. It was great to wake up in the forest instead of travelling to it and it was great to be free of vehicles. But the pressure of human settlers is taking its toll on this habitat around Manu Wildlife Center. There used to be four Giant Otters at Cocha Blanco in the oxbow lake but now there are three. One female was killed and her two pups stolen by poachers who then sold them at the market in Puerto Maldonaldo. Luckily, the pups were bought by members of SelvaSur who are trying to conserve the area. They reintroduced the two pups successfully to another female in another lake. We fell in love with an orphaned four-month old red howler monkey named Arturo who was in residence at Manu Wildlife Center. His mother was shot for food. Cocha Nuevo and Cocha Comungo near Manu Wildlife Center are currently being developed for eco-tourism and the trails have been cleared and camping platforms built. There is pressure inside Manu National Park from settlers and is probably the park's biggest problem.

On the west slope, we spent two days in coastal habitat around the arid desert of Lima. The arid lomas with cactus and rock that are moistened by the fog from the ocean were particularly interesting. We spent a few hours on the Pacific Ocean itself looking for pelagic and coastal species.

We chose Manu Expeditions for Barry Walker's long experience and reputation in the region and booked a private tour for three of us, costing just over $200/day each for everything including guide, internal flights, ground transportation and airport transfers, drivers, meals, boat rides and accommodations including tents and cook in one location. Colin Bushell was provided by Manu Expeditions as our guide. In addition to his work for Manu Expeditions, Colin also has his own company, Toucan Tours. We joined friends in Lima for an extension to Santa Eulalia road and Marcopomacocha with Barry Walker as guide. Airfare from LA on Continental with a stop in Houston cost around $600/person round trip. Outfitting throughout was exceptional. We had a six passenger van or ten passenger luxury bus with plenty of space for luggage in the back and competent, helpful, polite drivers and boat men. Tipping was appreciated. The flight from Boca Manu back to Cusco was a white knuckler but only 45 minutes in duration. The accommodations were exceptional as was the food.

This was our sixth trip to South America and our fifth to Amazonia.

Results:

542 species of birds with almost 200 new. Outstanding looks at 4 species of Tinamou, rare Humboldt Penguin, Crested Duck, Razor-billed Currasow, Pale-winged Trumpeter and Diademed Sandpiper-plover, 3 species of Pygmy-owl, 43 species of hummingbird (5 endemic), 49 species of Furnariid (14 endemic) and critically endangered Royal Cinclodes (photographed), 37 species of Antbird (2 endemic), 74 species of flycatcher (2 endemic), 1 endemic wren, 48 species of Tanager, 35 species of finch (1 endemic) and 5 species of Oropendola.

8 species of primates including rare Emperor Tamarin, Wooly Monkey, Night Monkey.

4 species of other wild mammals including Brazilian tapir, Giant Otter, Tamandaua (anteater) and red Brocket Deer.

Hindsight:

September through November are the popular months for this route. May was not the best time for the Subtropical and Tropical locations. It was the end of the rainy season and many birds were in post-breeding moult and not very active or vocal. Tapes were not that productive for some species. Juvenile birds were numerous. As a joke, we thought SE Peru in May might make a good workshop for tape dependent guides or a great fundraiser called the May Challenge.

The weather was weird. We hit a friaje (cold front) for a week that extended from San Pedro area on the Manu Road down through the first day at Manu Wildlife Center. During this time it was cold and rainy, and neither insects nor birds were moving. Sometimes four or five hours would go by with only one or two species seen. Our seven hour boat ride down the Madre de Dios River was freezing, and we wore knit caps, wool gloves and three layers of clothing. We lost a morning on the mirador just above Atalaya to rain and cold so we missed the streams of macaws coming from their roosts in the morning especially the endemic Blue-headed Macaw usually seen at that site. Flycatchers and antbirds were in particularly worn plumage. We theorized that during moult birds must be particularly vulnerable to energy loss as well as predators and therefore pretty much stayed put, but we have no scientific evidence to support our theory. I would be interested in any studies of behavior of neo-tropical birds during post-breeding moult if there are any.

There were no medical emergencies. Altitude sickness in Cusco, Abra Málaga and Marcopomacocha was a problem for some who couldn't take prophylaxis medication due to allergic reactions. We didn't take any anti-malarial drugs and so far have no botflies or leishmaniasis lesions although we talked about both whenever we had the opportunity. Barry Walker, who has the flesh-eating leishmaniasis and the scar to prove it believes it is carried by a transparent fly with red eyes that dances on the skin before biting. He believes the fly is crepuscular in the forest canopy and most easily contracted in a canopy tower at sunrise or sunset. There was some discussion as to whether repeated exposure might be a factor. Covering skin with fabric and repellent is the best preventative it seems. The food was amazing at all locations and we experienced no intestinal distress. Few snakes were seen although we asked questions and told stories about bushmaster and fer-de-lance encounters. We were told that both Amazonia Lodge and Manu Wildlife Center now have anti-venom. It would definitely pay to research snakebite emergency procedures in advance of a trip here with a qualified doctor including a rehearsal of an allergy test of the antivenom and intravenous injection procedures. A clean hypodermic needle might also be handy as well as knowledge of the quickest evacuation procedure to a clean hospital in Cusco, Lima, Miami or Houston.

In hindsight, I would have booked two or three nights in Manu National Park Lodge inside the park and three or four nights at Manu Wildlife Center outside the park instead of seven nights at Manu Wildlife Center. There is a better chance to see Jaguar drinking at the river or sunning on a log hanging over the river during the long boat ride into and out of the park, and Black-faced Cotinga and Rufous-fronted Antthrush are fairly common around Manu Lodge but rare and difficult near Manu Wildlife Center. Rufous-vented Ground-cuckoo is only possible at Pakitza which requires camping and an expedition from Manu Lodge. The cuckoo seen on the Jeep track at Amazonia Lodge in 1997 hasn't been seen since, and there are no records of the cuckoo from Manu Wildlife Center. When visiting Abra Málaga we stayed in Yucay in the Sacred Valley and drove long trips in the morning and evening. The Sacred Valley was interesting and the cliff carvings were amazing, but the drives were almost three hours to and from Quillabamba Road and Abra Málaga and I would have preferred camping at least one night.

The most unexpected surprise of the entire trip for me was the diversity of Furnariids in this area. Austral migrant terrestrial species were just arriving so Ground-Tryants were tough to sort out in the high altitudes and the variety of rare and endemic Miners, Cinclodes, Canasteros and Earthcreepers at the higher altitudes and Peruvian Recurvebill, Spinetails, Foliage-gleaners and Xenops in the subtropical and tropical forest mid-canopy and canopy were a lot more fascinating than I had predicted from my study of these mostly brown birds prior to the trip. Painted plates can't really communicate sounds and behaviors and Furnariids seemed unaffected by the season or weather and firmly established in all habitat. Each genus and species seemed to have some distinctive behavior or field mark that really set it apart. This trip opened my eyes to Furnariids and took my attention away from my usual obsession with Antbirds.

Locations and Sightings

*specialty of that location

+endemic

**rare and endangered

H heard only

Huacarpay Lakes (3020m)

A short drive from and a lower altitude than Cusco, Huacarpay Lakes is an easy first day of birding and a great way to acclimate especially to the altitude after the flights to Lima and Cusco. We drove east on Urcos Road to the puna habitat of rocky sandy brown hills dotted with cactus and flowering nicotania, lakes bordered by reeds and grasses, dry fields with small patches of agriculture here and there tended by old women with dry, wrinkled faces and red-purple ponchos. Did the hummers mistake them for huge flowers? Endemic Rusty-fronted Canastero stayed close to the ground running between clumps of grasse on the hillside where Bearded Helmetcrests feed on the nicotania blooms. Our first Ground-tyrants of the trip were spotted in the open dried dirt edges between the reeds and the road. Cinereous Harrier started hunting the grasses just before dusk. We missed Streak-fronted Thornbird, only hearing it once up the hillside but we did get to investigate an abandoned nest. We had poor looks at Many-colored Rush-Tyrant here but caught up with it at Villa Marshes near Lima for great looks later in the trip. Plumbeous Rail were numerous and easy to see when they feed near the reeds or preened at the water's edge. They were certainly easy to hear. Near the lake were small ponds here and there with Grebe, Teal and Ibis.

White-tufted Grebe Rollandia rolland

Snowy Egret Egretta thula

Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax

Puna Ibis Plegadis ridgwayi

Speckled Teal Anas flavirostris

(the yellow-billed, light breasted ssp.oxyptera and not the dark-billed, dark breasted ssp.andium sometimes called Andean Teal that we were used to in Ecuador)

Yellow-billed Pintail Anas georgica

Puna Teal Anas puna

Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera

Cinereous Harrier Circus cinereus

American Kestrel Falco sparverius

Plumbeous Rail Pardirallus sanguinolentus

Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus

Slate-colored Coot Fulica ardesiaca

Andean Lapwing Vanellus resplendens

Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca

Andean Gull Larus serranus

Spot-winged Pigeon Columba maculosa

Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata

Bare-faced Ground-Dove Metriopelia ceciliae

Black-winged Ground-Dove Metriopelia melanoptera

Sparkling Violet-ear Colibri coruscans

White-bellied Hummingbird Leucippus chionogaster

Giant Hummingbird Patagona gigas

*Bearded Mountaineer Oreonympha nobilis

Andean Flicker Colaptes rupicola

Wren-like Rushbird Phleocryptes melanops

+*Rusty-fronted Canastero Asthenes ottonis

H-Streak-fronted Thornbird Phacellodomus striaticeps

White-crested Elaenia Elaenia albiceps

Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant Anairetes flavirostris

Many-colored Rush-Tyrant Tachuris rubrigastra

White-browed Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca leucophrys

Spot-billed Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola maculirostris

Rufous-naped Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola rufivertex

Andean Negrito Lessonia oreas

House Wren Troglodytes aedon

Chiguanco Thrush Turdus chiguanco

Hooded Siskin Carduelis magellanica

Cinereous Conebill Conirostrum cinereum

Blue-and-yellow Tanager Thraupis bonariensis

Peruvian Sierra-Finch Phrygilus punensis

Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch Phrygilus plebejus

Band-tailed Seedeater Catamenia analis

Grassland Yellow-Finch Sicalis luteola

Bright-rumped Yellow-Finch Sicalis uropygialis

Greenish Yellow-Finch Sicalis olivascens

Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis

Golden-billed Saltator Saltator aurantiirostris

Yellow-winged Blackbird Agelaius thilius

Abra Málaga (3800m+)

We stayed in Yucay in the Sacred Valley but it would have been more convenient to camp on the Quillabamba Road and avoid the three hour drive back and forth at least one night. Abra Málaga was the only location with accessible polylepis forest on the trip, and with the rare and endangered species that live in it. There is a house right on the road at the top of the pass with a large pile of polylepis firewood outside. My hope was that someday they would find eucalyptus just as good or better. Our first assault up the ridge to the right of the road was aborted when Colin hit the crest and found that there was no inhabitable forest left in that location. It had changed that much in one year. The next morning we started up the ridge before the house and to the left of the road as you ascend. It was around 8 a.m. We crested the ridge after 30 minutes of breathless hiking and decided to try the patch of polylepis to our right and up the valley away from the road, a further hike of about 45 more minutes and the highest patch of polylepis that we could see in the pass. It would limit our energy to explore the top of the second patch of polylepis further down the valley to the road, but it would be our only chance to see the rare and critically endangered (and formerly endemic until a recent sighting in Bolivia) Royal Cinclodes. Colin hadn't seen the bird in his previous attempts over the last two years. Gunnar Engblom, who lives in Peru and operates Kolibri Expeditions has written a excellent paper and proposal to study Royal Cinclodes and published it on his website netaccessperu.net/kolibri/ (choose "Royal Cinclodes" under Research at the bottom of the left frame).

As we made our way into the patch we saw that many of the limbs of the polylepis trees had been cut as if pruned, allowing a lot of light on to the moss cover below. It wouldn't be long before the moss-cover would dry up. Just above the cut-over patch Colin played a tape of the Cinclodes, and we couldn't believe our amazing fortune as we saw this rare bird perched thirty feet above us in a polylepis tree, allowing me to crawl slowly up the rocks and moss slowly to get a photograph. The bird flew higher and back into the forest and we found it again on the side of the trail on the ground tossing moss-cover in search of invertebrates. Other than the common Bar-winged Cinclodes it was the only bird we saw for the hour or so that we explored this patch of polylepis.

We hiked over an hour parallel to but lower than the crest of the ridge to the next patch of polylepis, some replanted as part of a valuable program started by Gunnar Engblom, Gregorio Ferro Meza and Constantino Aucca Chutas and funded in part by donations from birders. Read more on this program at netaccessperu.net/kolibri/ click "Abra Málaga" under Research at the bottom of the left frame.

We spent two hours hiking down and towards the road in this patch of polylepis, getting good looks at the rare, endemic White-browed Tit-spinetail, and several looks at a pair of Tawny Tit-Spinetails. We just missed an Ash-breasted Tit-Tyrant seen by Colin. A big miss was Stripe-headed Antpitta which we never heard nor saw although we combed the scree and polylepis treeline for the two hours we were there.

In the polylepis:

Andean Hillstar Oreotrochilus estella

Bar-winged Cinclodes Cinclodes fuscus

***Royal Cinclodes Cinclodes aricomae

+***White-browed Tit-Spinetail Leptasthenura xenothorax

*Tawny Tit-Spinetail Leptasthenura yanacensis

Ash-breasted Tit-Tyrant Anairetes alpinus

*D'Orbigny's Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca oenanthoides

Thick-billed Siskin Carduelis crassirostris

Tit-like Dacnis Xenodacnis parina

Slaty Finch Haplospiza rustica

In the puna around and below the polylepis and above Quillabamba Road:

Speckled Teal Anas flavirostris

Variable Hawk Buteo polyosoma

+White-tufted Sunbeam Aglaeactis castelnaudii

Slender-billed Miner Geositta tenuirostris

+Creamy-crested Spinetail Cranioleuca albicapilla

Rufous-webbed Tyrant Polioxolmis rufipennis

Puna Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola juninensis

Cinereous Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola cinerea

Ochre-naped Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola flavinucha

H-Puna Tapaculo Scytalopus simonsi

Paramo Pipit Anthus bogotensis

Thick-billed Siskin Carduelis crassirostris

Tit-like Dacnis Xenodacnis parina

Peruvian Sierra-Finch Phrygilus punensis

Plumbeous Sierra-Finch Phrygilus unicolor

Bright-rumped Yellow-finch Sicalis uropygialis

Quillabamba Road (cloud forest) (3800-3200m)

The cloud forest of Quillabamba Road and the lower altitude was a relief after the long morning at Abra Málaga. Species that were usually common and vocal during September to November were quiet and hard to find in May. We missed +Parodi's Hemispingus entirely, not seeing or hearing it. Patches of cloud forest could be explored from the road but there were big areas where it looked like there had been fires. We found one entire hillside of one species of cycad palm. The tanagers and the epiphyte and moss-covered trees reminded us that we were back in the cloud forest of South America.

White-throated Hawk Buteo albigula

Mountain Caracara Phalcoboenus megalopterus

Band-tailed Pigeon Columba fasciata

Andean Parakeet Bolborhynchus orbygnesius

Band-winged Nightjar Caprimulgus longirostris

Sparkling Violet-ear Colibri coruscans

Giant Hummingbird Patagona gigas

Sapphire-vented Puffleg Eriocnemis luciani

Tyrian Metaltail Metallura tyrianthina

Scaled Metaltail Metallura aeneocauda

Blue-mantled Thornbill Chalcostigma stanleyi

+Marcapata Spinetail Cranioleuca marcapatae

+Puna Thistletail Schizoeaca helleri

Cordilleran Canastero Asthenes modesta

Streak-throated Canastero Asthenes humilis

Line-fronted Canastero Asthenes urubambensis

Pearled Treerunner Margarornis squamiger

H-Diademed Tapaculo Scytalopus schulenbergi

Red-crested Cotinga Ampelion rubrocristata

White-throated Tyrannulet Mecocerculus leucophrys

White-banded Tyrannulet Mecocerculus stictopterus

Ochraceous-breasted Flycatcher Myiophobus ochraceiventris

Cinnamon Flycatcher Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea

Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca rufipectoralis

Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca fumicolor

Red-rumped Bush-Tyrant Cnemarchus erythropygius

Black-billed Shrike-Tyrant Agriornis montana

Brown-bellied Swallow Notiochelidon murina

+Inca Wren Thryothorus eisenmanni

House Wren Troglodytes aedon

Mountain Wren Troglodytes solstitialis

Great Thrush Turdus fuscater

Spectacled Redstart Myioborus melanocephalus

White-browed Conebill Conirostrum ferrugineiventre

Three-striped Hemispingus Hemispingus trifasciatus

Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager Anisognathus igniventris

*Golden-collared Tanager Iridosornis jelskii

*Chestnut-bellied Mountain-Tanager Delothraupis castaneoventris

Plain-colored Seedeater Catamenia inornata

Moustached Flowerpiercer Diglossa mystacalis

Black-throated Flowerpiercer Diglossa brunneiventris

Masked Flowerpiercer Diglossopis cyanea

Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis

Manu Road from Cusco to Pillahuata (3300m-2600m)

We took off from Cusco in the dark and saw sunrise in the Andes just as we began our descent into the agricultural valley between Cusco and Tres Cruces. Not much habitat left in the valley which made spotting birds from the bus fairly easy. We stopped and made breakfast near the small village of Huancarani and found a cooperative male +Chestnut-breasted Mountain-Finch. Two Andean Lapwing foraged on the ground next to our breakfast site. Agricultural fields in this area were filled with amaranth which produces the grain quinoa,and a lot of blue lupine. I remembered that I had eaten a dish of beans called "cho cho" at San Isidro ranch in Ecuador, and Carmen had explained to me that they were the beans of a certain species of lupine which had to be soaked for two days to leech out the toxins. I wondered if these fields produced beans not cut flowers. There was one small valley of native habitat and trees after the agricultural fields in a curve in the road and we stopped there. Colin found a pair of +Creamy-crested Spinetail and soon the entire hillside of them were calling. A small stream and waterfall went beneath the road and we looked down on the trees below. I spotted an interesting bird in a large leaf light bark mature tree kind of like and alder in the shade below us and soon we had identified a female Crested Becard, a first sighting for this area. We stopped in the river town of Paucartambo to have a walk and watch Brown-bellied Swallows over the river. Tres Cruces is on the peak of the ridge and the exact spot where Manu National Park begins. It is also the beginning of unbroken forest which is contiguous down to the Madre de Dios River. We walked the road near a Tunnel in cloud forest and were delighted by a long flyover of eight Golden-plumed Parakeet. We stopped at a mirador that overlooked the entire east slope and marvelled at the view of the road that would take us to Amazonia. At dusk, we found two female Swallow-tailed Nightjars with our spotlights for close looks. We heard that an Andean Potoo had been seen here, but no luck for us. We ended the day at Pillahuata and camped overnight in a building beside the road.

Variable Hawk Buteo polyosoma

Mountain Caracara Phalcoboenus megalopterus

American Kestrel Falco sparverius

Andean Guan Penelope montagnii

Andean Lapwing Vanellus resplendens

Band-tailed Pigeon Columba fasciata

Golden-plumed Parakeet Leptosittaca branickii

Swallow-tailed Nightjar Uropsalis segmentata

White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris

Violet-throated Starfrontlet Coeligena violifer

Amethyst-throated Sunangel Heliangelus amethysticollis

Tyrian Metaltail Metallura tyrianthina

Rufous-capped Thornbill Chalcostigma ruficeps

Long-tailed Sylph Aglaiocercus kingi

Golden-headed Quetzal Pharomachrus auriceps

Gray-breasted Mountain-Toucan Andigena hypoglauca

Crimson-mantled Woodpecker Piculus rivolii

Common Miner Geositta cunicularia

Bar-winged Cinclodes Cinclodes fuscus

+*Creamy-crested Spinetail Cranioleuca albicapilla

Red-crested Cotinga Ampelion rubrocristat

Barred Fruiteater Pipreola arcuata

Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaenia flavogaster

Sierran Elaenia Elaenia pallatangae

Torrent Tyrannulet Serpophaga cinerea

+Inca Flycatcher Leptopogon taczanowskii

White-throated Tyrannulet Mecocerculus leucophrys

Black-throated Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus granadensis

Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca fumicolor

Puna Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola juninensis

Crested Becard Pachyramphus validus

Brown-bellied Swallow Notiochelidon murina

Fulvous Wren Cinnycerthia fulva

Mountain Wren Troglodytes solstitialis

Chiguanco Thrush Turdus chiguanco

Great Thrush Turdus fuscater

Hooded Siskin Carduelis magellanica

Spectacled Redstart Myioborus melanocephalus

Citrine Warbler Basileuterus luteoviridis

Cinereous Conebill Conirostrum cinereum

Blue-capped Tanager Thraupis cyanocephala

Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager Anisognathus igniventris

Golden-collared Tanager Iridosornis jelskii

Blue-and-black Tanager Tangara vassorii

Peruvian Sierra-Finch Phrygilus punensis

Plumbeous Sierra-Finch Phrygilus unicolor

+***Chestnut-breasted Mountain-Finch Poospiza caesar

Band-tailed Seedeater Catamenia analis

Moustached Flowerpiercer Diglossa mystacalis

Masked Flowerpiercer Diglossopis cyanea

Black-faced Brush-Finch Atlapetes melanolaemus

(an anticipated split from Rufous-naped Brush-Finch)

Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis

Manu Rd from Pillahuata to San Pedro 2600-1500m

I felt guilty for waking everyone while trying to get outside in the middle of the night to answer nature's calling. But once outside I stood in awe of black sky with a full moon and shooting stars. The crisp cool air was invigorating and I relished the time I spent by myself. Nature was calling in a different way. A few hours later after breakfast we looked for Red-and-white Antpitta just behind the latrines. We stood on the hill looking down at the creek below and played the tape. Edward saw the bird run across the opening like a thrush on a mission but no one else got even a glimpse. Colin played the tape again. While we were looking down for the bird I looked to the right and left as I usually do and spotted the white breast and the red shoulder and wing. The bird was perched about twelve feet to our right about six inches off the ground on a limb, facing the same direction as we were as if to say "what the hell are you looking at?" It flushed before anyone else got on it. We spent twenty minutes listening to a bird which never became visible and finally saw a pair run across the trail a little further down the road behind the building. There seemed to be three or four pair calling along the stream in the valley.

As we worked out way down the road in the cloud forest, we heard a Yungas Pygmy-owl calling. It was close. We tried to find it in the epiphyte loaded trees by focusing on the clump of foliage in the middle of a tree where the hummingbirds were mobbing. No luck. I stepped away about twenty feet up the road for a better view and found the owl sitting in the open on a limb not even close to the mobbing activity. Were the hummingbirds guessing? Was it some kind of diversionary tactic? Were they wisely keeping their distance? I made a note for the future to not always rely on mobbing hummingbirds for location of an owl.

As we descended into the valley of the San Pedro area and the Cock-of-the-Rock lodge the cloud forest became a lot more moist. It was almost as if we had rounded a bend into another world. We were looking for White-eared Solitaire, which we never heard or saw, and happened upon Blue-banded Toucanet. Violent movement in the trees behind turned out not to be a wind storm but a troop of rare Common Wooly Monkey, our first wild mammal. We heard Cocks-of-the-Rock displaying as we passed two leks between Cloud Forest Lodge and Cock-of-the-Rock lodge, and saw a female flying over the road. We were to stay three nights in this area.

White Hawk Leucopternis albicollis

White-rumped Hawk Buteo leucorrhous

Black-and-chestnut Eagle Oroaetus isidori

Andean Guan Penelope montagnii

Scaly-naped Parrot Amazona mercenaria

Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana

*Yungas Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium bolivianum

Chestnut-collared Swift Streptoprocne rutila

Green Violet-ear Colibri thalassinus

Golden-tailed Sapphire Chrysuronia oenone

Speckled Hummingbird Adelomyia melanogenys

Gould's Inca Coeligena inca

Long-tailed Sylph Aglaiocercus kingi

Masked Trogon Trogon personatus

*Blue-banded Toucanet Aulacorhynchus coeruleicinctis

Azara's Spinetail Synallaxis azarae

Spotted Barbtail Premnoplex brunnescens

Pearled Treerunner Margarornis squamiger

Streaked Tuftedcheek Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii

Striped Treehunter Thripadectes holostictus

Montane Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger

+*Red-and-white Antpitta Grallaria erythroleuca

*Andean Cock-of-the-rock Rupicola peruviana

White-throated Tyrannulet Mecocerculus leucophrys

White-banded Tyrannulet Mecocerculus stictopterus

Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum plumbeiceps

Fulvous-breasted Flatbill Rhynchocyclus fulvipectus

Handsome Flycatcher Myiophobus pulcher

Cinnamon Flycatcher Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea

Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris

Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer

Barred Becard Pachyramphus versicolor

Blue-and-white Swallow Pygochelidon cyanoleuca

White-capped Dipper Cinclus leucocephalus

Fulvous Wren Cinnycerthia fulva

Mountain Wren Troglodytes solstitialis

Great Thrush Turdus fuscater

Green Jay Cyanocorax yncas

*White-collared Jay Cyanolyca viridicyana

Slate-throated Redstart Myioborus miniatus

Spectacled Redstart Myioborus melanocephalus

Pale-legged Warbler Basileuterus signatus

Citrine Warbler Basileuterus luteoviridis

Capped Conebill Conirostrum albifrons

Grass-green Tanager Chlorornis riefferii

Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager Chlorospingus flavigularis

Gray-hooded Bush-Tanager Cnemoscopus rubrirostris

Black-capped Hemispingus Hemispingus atropileus

Superciliaried Hemispingus Hemispingus superciliaris

Black-eared Hemispingus Hemispingus melanotis

*Rust-and-yellow Tanager Thlypopsis ruficeps

Blue-capped Tanager Thraupis cyanocephala

Hooded Mountain-Tanager Buthraupis montana

Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager Anisognathus igniventris

Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager Anisognathus somptuosus

Golden-collared Tanager Iridosornis jelskii

Chestnut-bellied Mountain-Tanager Delothraupis castaneoventris

Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster

Blue-and-black Tanager Tangara vassorii

Deep-blue Flowerpiercer Diglossopis glauca

Masked Flowerpiercer Diglossopis cyanea

Black-faced Brush-Finch Atlapetes melanolaemus

Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis

Black-backed Grosbeak Pheucticus aureoventris

Mountain Cacique Cacicus chrysonotus

Dusky-green Oropendola Psarocolius atrovirens

Manu Road and San Pedro Area (Cock of the Rock Lodge) 1500m

Up and down the road we walked stopping for feeding flocks and scouring the river for Torrent Ducks. The Cock-of-the-Rock lodge www.inkanatura.com had hummingbird feeders which were productive for Violet-fronted Brilliants at close range and a feeding platform in the clearing which brought Silver-beak Tanagers and Brown Capuchin Monkey for close viewing. Blooming trees in the clearing brought other hummers and an occasional feeding flock. One flock had a male and female Versicolored Barbet and was the only time we saw the bird. Especially productive was the new trail behind the lodge which winds around and down to and along the river. We found Slaty Gnateater here, the female visible with the long rufous eye stripe, and spent an hour with a Chestnut-breasted Wren which zipped from spot to spot allowing brief looks here and there. The song of this wren may be better than the song of Musician Wren. Magnificent. We found a lek of Yungas Manakin and got good looks at the displaying males. Later we were told by one of the volunteers studying primates at Manu Wildlife Center that he had seen a flock of five Olive Finches on this trail for several days in a row!

We watched in the valley after 10 a.m. for a Solitary Eagle that is frequently seen soaring here but found a pair of Black Hawk-Eagle. We spent one morning at the Cock-of-the-Rock lek and even though we've seen these birds a few times the display behaviour and sounds never fail to impress.

It was here that a cold front from Patagonia called a friaje came into the entire area and put a damper on the birds. We lost a morning to rain and had showers on and off, and the temperature dropped considerably. It would stay with us for six days making birding challenging. One day we spent three hours seeing only Yellow-throated Bush-Tanagers.

Feeding flocks especially in the morning were very productive, even yielding a migrant Andean Slaty-thrush. Common in the flocks were birds like Paradise Tanager, Marble-faced Bristle-tyrant, Blue Dacnis, Red-eyed Vireo, Three-striped Warbler, Slate-throated Redstart and Pearled Treerunner, the possible leader. We had a Dusky-capped Greenlet at eye level, a blessing from this bird of the high canopy. We walked the road below the lodge seeing our first Oropendolas of the trip, a sure sign that we were heading into the Tropical zone. Cerulean-capped Manakin, a specialty of this area, was heard only once by Colin.

Fasciated Tiger-Heron Tigrisoma fasciatum

Torrent Duck Merganetta armata

Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris

Black Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus tyrannus

Speckled Chachalaca Ortalis guttata

Scaly-naped Parrot Amazona mercenaria

Lyre-tailed Nightjar Uropsalis lyra

Violet-fronted Brilliant Heliodoxa leadbeateri

Booted Racket-tail Ocreatus underwoodii

Long-tailed Sylph Aglaiocercus kingi

*Bluish-fronted Jacamar Galbula cyanescens

Versicolored Barbet Eubucco versicolor

Line-cheeked Spinetail Cranioleuca antisiensis

Spotted Barbtail Premnoplex brunnescens

Pearled Treerunner Margarornis squamiger

Montane Foliage-gleaner Anabacerthia striaticollis

Black-billed Treehunter Thripadectes melanorhynchus

Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner Philydor rufus

Black-banded Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes picumnus

Buff-throated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus guttatus

Olive-backed Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus triangularis

Montane Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger

Red-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus trochilirostris

Stripe-chested Antwren Myrmotherula longicauda

Yellow-breasted Antwren Herpsilochmus axillaris

Black Antbird Cercomacra serva

Slaty Gnateater Conopophaga ardesiaca

White-crowned Tapaculo Scytalopus atratus

*Andean Cock-of-the-rock Rupicola peruviana

*Yungas Manakin Chiroxiphia boliviana

Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaenia flavogaster

Slaty-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon superciliaris

Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant Phylloscartes ophthalmicus

Bolivian Tyrannulet Zimmerius bolivianus

White-throated Tyrannulet Mecocerculus leucophrys

Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant Lophotriccus pileatus

Fulvous-breasted Flatbill Rhynchocyclus fulvipectus

Smoke-colored Pewee Contopus fumigatus

Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer

Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis

Blue-and-white Swallow Pygochelidon cyanoleuca

Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis

White-capped Dipper Cinclus leucocephalus

Chestnut-breasted Wren Cyphorhinus thoracicus

Andean Slaty-Thrush Turdus nigriceps

Brown-capped Vireo Vireo leucophrys

Dusky-capped Greenlet Hylophilus hypoxanthus

Tropical Parula Parula pitiayumi

Slate-throated Redstart Myioborus miniatus

Two-banded Warbler Basileuterus bivittatus

Russet-crowned Warbler Basileuterus coronatus

Three-striped Warbler Basileuterus tristriatus

Grass-green Tanager Chlorornis riefferii

Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager Chlorospingus flavigularis

Black-eared Hemispingus Hemispingus melanotis

Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo

Blue-gray Tanager Thraupis episcopus

Yellow-throated Tanager Iridosornis analis

Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster

Blue-naped Chlorophonia Chlorophonia cyanea

Orange-eared Tanager Chlorochrysa calliparaea

Paradise Tanager Tangara chilensis

Golden Tanager Tangara arthus

Saffron-crowned Tanager Tangara xanthocephala

Spotted Tanager Tangara punctata

Bay-headed Tanager Tangara gyrola

Blue-necked Tanager Tangara cyanicollis

Blue-and-black Tanager Tangara vassorii

Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana

Purple Honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus

Deep-blue Flowerpiercer Diglossopis glauca

Black-faced Brush-Finch Atlapetes melanolaemus

Yellow-browed Sparrow Ammodramus aurifrons

Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus

Dusky-green Oropendola Psarocolius atrovirens

Russet-backed Oropendola Psarocolius angustifrons

MAMMALS

Brown Capuchin Monkey - several came to feeders at the lodge

Common Wooly Monkey

Bolivian Squirrel

Manu Road from San Pedro to Atalaya (1500m-550m)

We reluctantly left the Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge heading further into denser and denser vegetation to the Atalaya on the Madre de Dios River where we would catch a boat to Amazonia Lodge across the river.

We began to see macaws and more parrots, more antbirds and furnariids. But our stops in bamboo were frustrating. We would only occasionally hear Chestnut-backed Antshrike call and we never saw it. Bamboo Antshrike would call occasionally but we never could get a response. Black-backed Tody-flycatcher wouldn't answer. The bamboo was absolutely dead and we couldn't believe it, although one afternoon we surprised a pair of Night Monkey and got really close views as they stared back at us.

We stopped at the mirador and walked in that area. We returned to the mirador from Amazonia lodge for the macaw display but the friaje and the rain kept macaws from streaming across the river. They either didn't leave their roost or flew low through the forest. We never saw Blue-headed Macaw. Black-capped Tinamou were calling frequently and Colin thought as a joke he'd tape one and play it back while he was by himself. Of course, the bird poked its head out of the trail and only Colin, in amazement, saw it. We found a tree in bloom with lots of new hummers including Gray-breasted Sabrewing, Fork-tailed Woodnymph, Rufous-throated Sapphire, Many Spotted Hummingbird, Sapphire-spangled Emerald. At one stop we had a pair of very vocal Moustached Wrens, Great Antshrike, a pair of White-browed Antbirds and Purplish Jays. Another spot yielded a cooperative Cabanis' Spinetail. The calling of a Forest-falcon brought our attention to a dead snag in a clearing. Let's get the scope on it. Wait. What's behind it? A pair of Scarlet-hooded Barbets! Get on them! Get no them! By the time we went back to the Forest-falcon it was gone. That would be the story with Forest-falcons on this trip. Never actually saw one well enough to identify it. There was more activity along this road and we were encouraged that perhaps the friaje had lifted. It had for a few hours only. It would be back for the next few days.

Black-capped Tinamou Crypturellus atrocapillus

Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea

Snowy Egret Egretta thula

Fasciated Tiger-Heron Tigrisoma fasciatum

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus

Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura

Greater Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes melambrotus

Hook-billed Kite Chondrohierax uncinatus

Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris

Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle Spizastur melanoleucus

Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans

Speckled Chachalaca Ortalis guttata

Military Macaw Ara militaris

Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloroptera

Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severa

White-eyed Parakeet Aratinga leucophthalmus

Dusky-headed Parakeet Aratinga weddellii

Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus

Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani

White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris

Western Long-tailed Hermit Phaethornis longirostris

Reddish Hermit Phaethornis ruber

Gray-breasted Sabrewing Campylopterus largipennis

Violet-headed Hummingbird Klais guimeti

Fork-tailed Woodnymph Thalurania furcata

Rufous-throated Sapphire Hylocharis sapphirina

Many-spotted Hummingbird Leucippus hypostictus

Sapphire-spangled Emerald Polyerata lactea

Speckled Hummingbird Adelomyia melanogenys

Violet-fronted Brilliant Heliodoxa leadbeateri

Blue-crowned Trogon Trogon curucui

Bluish-fronted Jacamar Galbula cyanescens

Swallow-wing Chelidoptera tenebrosa

Scarlet-hooded Barbet Eubucco tucinkae

Chestnut-eared Aracari Pteroglossus castanotis

Crimson-crested Woodpecker Campephilus melanoleucos

Dark-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis albigularis

Cabanis' Spinetail Synallaxis cabanisi

Plain-crowned Spinetail Synallaxis gujanensis

Montane Foliage-gleaner Anabacerthia striaticollis

Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner Philydor erythrocercus

Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner Philydor ruficaudatus

Black-banded Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes picumnus

Buff-throated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus guttatus

H-Bamboo Antshrike Cymbilaimus sannctaemariae

Great Antshrike Taraba major

Barred Antshrike Thamnophilus doliatus

H-Chestnut-backed Antshrike Thamnophilus palliatus

Plain-winged Antshrike Thamnophilus schistaceus

Stripe-chested Antwren Myrmotherula longicauda

Slaty Antwren Myrmotherula schisticolor

Dot-winged Antwren Microrhopias quixensis

White-browed Antbird Myrmoborus leucophrys

Spot-winged Antbird Percnostola leucostigma

White-lined Antbird Percnostola lophotes

Black-throated Antbird Myrmeciza atrothorax

Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaenia flavogaster

Small-billed Elaenia Elaenia parvirostris

Olive-striped Flycatcher Mionectes olivaceus

Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant Phylloscartes ophthalmicus

Slender-footed Tyrannulet Zimmerius gracilipes

Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant Lophotriccus pileatus

Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum latirostre

Yellow-margined Flycatcher Tolmomyias assimilis

Euler's Flycatcher Lathrotriccus euleri

Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus

Long-tailed Tyrant Colonia colonus

Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox

Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis

Gray-capped Flycatcher Myiozetetes granadensis

Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus

Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata

Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis

Moustached Wren Thryothorus genibarbis

Black-billed Thrush Turdus ignobilis

Purplish Jay Cyanocorax cyanomelas

Violaceous Jay Cyanocorax violaceus

Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus

Slate-throated Redstart Myioborus miniatus

+*Golden-bellied Warbler Basileuterus chrysogaster

Buff-rumped Warbler Basileuterus fulvicauda

Bananaquit Coereba flaveola

Magpie Tanager Cissopis leveriana

Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager Chlorospingus flavigularis

*Black-goggled Tanager Trichothraupis melanops

Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo

Blue-gray Tanager Thraupis episcopus

Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum

Bronze-green Euphonia Euphonia mesochrysa

Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster

Blue-naped Chlorophonia Chlorophonia cyanea

Orange-eared Tanager Chlorochrysa calliparaea

Turquoise Tanager Tangara mexicana

Paradise Tanager Tangara chilensis

Green-and-gold Tanager Tangara schrankii

Golden Tanager Tangara arthus

Bay-headed Tanager Tangara gyrola

Blue-necked Tanager Tangara cyanicollis

Beryl-spangled Tanager Tangara nigroviridis

Black-faced Dacnis Dacnis lineata

Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana

Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza

Purple Honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus

Chestnut-bellied Seedeater Sporophila castaneiventris

Black-billed Seed-Finch Oryzoborus atrirostris

Yellow-browed Sparrow Ammodramus aurifrons

Buff-throated Saltator Saltator maximus

Giant Cowbird Scaphidura oryzivora

Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela

Dusky-green Oropendola Psarocolius atrovirens

Russet-backed Oropendola Psarocolius angustifrons

MAMMALS

Night Monkey

Common Squirrel Monkey

Brown Capucin Monkey

Common Wooly Monkey

Amazonia Lodge (250M)

Here we were at the fabled Amazonia Lodge where Gail MacKiernan had seen her jaguar, many had seen Rufuos-vented Ground-cuckoo on the Jeep Track and the site of legendary snake attacks by Bushmaster and fer-de-lance. Alas, it turns out the Cuckoo hasn't been seen since that one season in 1997 and most of the workers have never seen Jaguar. Luckily, we never saw poisonous snakes. Unluckily we never saw a cat, although we found fresh puma tracks. The Jeep Track was great but very muddy, and the Blackish Rails wouldn't come out even though we tried every day. A Uniform Crake did however walk along the track right in front of us. Johannes' Tody-flycatcher proved elusive in the rain and cold and we never saw it. No antswarms either even up on the ridge, so no Hairy-crested Antbird which is rumored to be there. We consoled ourselves with the amazing food and with stories of the famous snake bites that have occurred at the lodge - even visited the corner where a Bushmaster struck a Field Guides participant with a five foot strike and hit him above the rubber boot! We heard a Long-tailed Potoo behind the workers' cabins and could have seen it but we spent too much time on a pair of Tawny-bellied Screech-owl for a possible split to S.T-b S-o. What were we thinking? We saw two potoos fly away and one could easily have been the Long-tailed but too late we missed it.

We spent three hours crawling on our stomachs through helliconia and mud to get a bad glimpse of a singing Amazonian Antpitta which we never re-found, and even gave up a calling Buckley's Forest-falcon to stay with the Antpitta the first time when we didn't see it. Later we would get incredible, easy looks on an island in the Madre de Dios River, but that's birding! We could easily have spent three more days at this amazing place even though it rained every night.

Undulated Tinamou Crypturellus undulatus

Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura

Greater Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes melambrotus

Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris

Red-throated Caracara Daptrius americanus

Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus

H-Barred Forest-Falcon Micrastur ruficollis

H-Slaty-backed Forest-Falcon Micrastur mirandollei

H-Buckley's Forest-Falcon Micrastur buckleyi

H-Wattled Guan Aburria aburri

Spix's Guan Penelope jacquacu

Hoatzin Opisthocomus hoazin

Gray-necked Wood-Rail Aramides cajanea

Uniform Crake Amaurolimnas concolor

H-Blackish Rail Pardirallus nigricans

Purple Gallinule Porphyrula martinica

Sungrebe Heliornis fulica

Sunbittern Eurypyga helias

Gray-fronted Dove Leptotila rufaxilla

Military Macaw Ara militaris

Scarlet Macaw Ara macao

Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloroptera

Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severa

White-eyed Parakeet Aratinga leucophthalmus

Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera

Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus

Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl Otus watsonii

(possible split to S.Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl)

H-Long-tailed Potoo Nyctibius aethereus

Common Potoo Nyctibius griseus

White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris

Pale-rumped Swift Chaetura egregia

Short-tailed Swift Chaetura brachyura

Pale-tailed Barbthroat Threnetes niger

Western Long-tailed Hermit Phaethornis longirostris

+*Koepcke's Hermit Phaethornis koepckeae

Green-fronted Lancebill Doryfera ludovicae

(on the hibiscus in the garden in front of the cabins!)

Rufous-crested Coquette Lophornis delattrei

Wire-crested Thorntail Popelairia popelairii

Blue-tailed Emerald Chlorostilbon mellisugus

Fork-tailed Woodnymph Thalurania furcata

Golden-tailed Sapphire Chrysuronia oenone

Black-eared Fairy Heliothryx aurita

White-tailed Trogon Trogon viridis

Collared Trogon Trogon collaris

Blue-crowned Trogon Trogon curucui

Black-tailed Trogon Trogon melanurus

Bluish-fronted Jacamar Galbula cyanescens

Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons

H-Golden-collared Toucanet Selenidera reinwardtii

H-Yellow-ridged Toucan Ramphastos culminatus

H-Cuvier's Toucan Ramphastos cuvieri

Cream-colored Woodpecker Celeus flavus

Crimson-crested Woodpecker Campephilus melanoleucos

Pale-legged Hornero Furnarius leucopus

Crested Foliage-gleaner Anabazenops dorsalis

Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner Automolus rufipileatus

Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus

Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa

Buff-throated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus guttatus

Lineated Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes albolineatus

Plain Antvireo Dysithamnus mentalis

Bluish-slate Antshrike Thamnomanes schistogynus

Pygmy Antwren Myrmotherula brachyura

White-browed Antbird Myrmoborus leucophrys

Warbling Antbird Hypocnemis cantator

Chestnut-tailed Antbird Myrmeciza hemimelaena

Goeldi's Antbird Myrmeciza goeldii

Sooty Antbird Myrmeciza fortis

Spot-backed Antbird Hylophylax naevia

Black-faced Antthrush Formicarius analis

Amazonian Antpitta Hylopezus berlepschi

Band-tailed Manakin Pipra fasciicauda

Fiery-capped Manakin Machaeropterus pyrocephalus

MacConnell's Flycatcher Mionectes macconnelli

Spectacled Bristle-Tyrant Phylloscartes orbitalis

Bran-colored Flycatcher Myiophobus fasciatus

Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox

Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua

Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis

Gray-capped Flycatcher Myiozetetes granadensis

Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus

White-thighed Swallow Neochelidon tibialis

Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis

Black-capped Donacobius Donacobius atricapillus

House Wren Troglodytes aedon

Black-billed Thrush Turdus ignobilis

Violaceous Jay Cyanocorax violaceus

Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus

Golden-bellied Warbler Basileuterus chrysogaster

Olive Tanager Chlorothraupis carmioli

Masked Crimson Tanager Ramphocelus nigrogularis

Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo

Blue-gray Tanager Thraupis episcopus

Paradise Tanager Tangara chilensis

Green-and-gold Tanager Tangara schrankii

Opal-crowned Tanager Tangara callophrys

Black-faced Dacnis Dacnis lineata

Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana

Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza

Purple Honeycreeper Cyanerpes caeruleus

Yellow-browed Sparrow Ammodramus aurifrons

Troupial Icterus icterus

Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela

Russet-backed Oropendola Psarocolius angustifrons

Amazonian Oropendola Gymnostinops bifasciatus

Boat Rides on the Madre de Dios River

A highlight of the trip were the boat rides every day and the birds we saw. Our first boat ride was the seven hour trip to Manu Wildlife Center. Because of the friaje we were freezing and wore wool gloves and knit caps and three layers of clothes.

Capped Heron Pilherodius pileatus

Cocoi Heron Ardea cocoi

Great Egret Ardea alba

Snowy Egret Egretta thula

Fasciated Tiger-Heron Tigrisoma fasciatum

Wood Stork Mycteria americana

Horned Screamer Anhima cornuta

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus

Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura

Osprey Pandion haliaetus

Crane Hawk Geranospiza caerulescens

Great Black-Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga

Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris

Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus

Red-throated Caracara Daptrius americanus

Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis

Orange-breasted Falcon Falco deiroleucus

Pied Lapwing Vanellus cayanus

Collared Plover Charadrius collaris

Yellow-billed Tern Sterna superciliaris

Large-billed Tern Phaetusa simplex

Black Skimmer Rynchops niger

Pale-vented Pigeon Columba cayennensis

Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloroptera

Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severa

White-eyed Parakeet Aratinga leucophthalmus

Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera

White-bellied Parrot Pionites leucogaster

Sand-colored Nighthawk Chordeiles rupestris

(100s flew from their roost on the rocks on the river islands at sunset)

White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris

Fork-tailed Palm-Swift Tachornis squamata

Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona

Swallow-wing Chelidoptera tenebrosa

Drab Water-Tyrant Ochthornis littoralis

Little Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola fluviatilis

White-winged Swallow Tachycineta albiventer

Blue-and-white Swallow Pygochelidon cyanoleuca

White-banded Swallow Atticora fasciata

Red-capped Cardinal Paroaria gularis

Giant Cowbird Scaphidura oryzivora

Russet-backed Oropendola Psarocolius angustifrons

Amazonian Oropendola Gymnostinops bifasciatus

Manu Wildlife Center

A seven hour boat ride in a covered boat brought us to the Manu Wildlife Center just outside Manu National Park and our home for seven nights. Here there's plenty to explore by foot with a canopy tower, a grid of riverside and terra firma trails, a tapir lick with viewing platform and short boat rides are possible to oxbow lakes for Giant Otter, a mineral lick where parrots and macaws gather every day, river islands and bamboo habitat. No more roads, no more vehicles, no more mountains and altitude. Just river and forest and the incredible diversity and wealth of species in the tropical forest. Like Africa, Manu is a paradise for wild life viewing. And for birdwatchers, Manu is mind boggling. John Terborgh, Professor at Duke University Center for Tropical Conservation contrasts the same size patch of forest in Manu and in New Hampshire: "...both harbor about 1,000 pairs of breeding birds per square kilometer, but the former contains over 330 species while the latter supports only 35."

The fascinating history of the Manu area through booms and busts in rubber, lumber, animal skins and oil including fascinating characters such as Fitzcarraldo (who died there), the coincidental meeting which formed the largest park in South America and photographs of the flora and fauna of the area are presented in a special edition of 250 of the book Peru's Amazonian Eden:Manu National Park and Biosphere to benefit the conservationist organization La Selva Sur. A few are available only in the offices of Peru Verde in Cusco, Urb. Santa Monica, Jr. Ricardo Palma J-1 (fax #(084) 22-6392) for approximately $90US. We went to the offices of Peru Verde in Cusco after we returned from Manu and had the good fortune to run into David G. Ricalde who had just returned from three years at Madidi National Park in Bolivia working to create eco-tourism and conservation programs based on Manu. New local owned and operated eco-tourism lodges will be opening soon in Madidi as well as in the western end of Manu under the auspices of partnerships like Inkanatura which owns and operates Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge and Manu Wildlife Center (www.inkanatura.com). Copies of the book are at both lodges for those mornings or birding breaks.

Booms and busts leave human residue, and settlers are encroaching on this paradise, particularly visible in the area of Manu Wildlife Center. We fell in love with Arturo, a four-month old orphaned red howler monkey who's mother had been shot for food. He is cared for by one of the staff of the Center and we spent time with him at the end of every day. Arturo ran to us as we left the boat, or dropped on our heads from the rafters of the walkways, clutching to the back of our necks as if we were members of his troop, tail wrapped around throat. Or he would play, reaching his long arm out to grab a finger or an ear. Giant otter pups had been stolen by poachers who shot the mother, only to be bought by SelvaSur conservationists for $30 each in the market at Puerto Maldonaldo and reintroduced into the wild. Two of the locations we visited by boat were being developed for eco-tourism by Manu Safaris, another ecotourism company, the trails widened and clearings cut for tented platforms.

I don't think Manu can be experienced in one visit. When I go back, I'll spend time at Manu Park Lodge inside the park, and hopefully in the new lodge on the western end when it opens. But there is no question that I will go back to this natural paradise.

Undulated Tinamou Crypturellus undulatus

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus

Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura

Greater Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes melambrotus

Slate-colored Hawk Leucopternis schistacea

Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris

Black Caracara Daptrius ater

Lined Forest-Falcon Micrastur gilvicollis

Speckled Chachalaca Ortalis guttata

Spix's Guan Penelope jacquacu

Starred Wood-Quail Odontophorus stellatus

*Pale-winged Trumpeter Psophia leucoptera

(Ed spent an hour with a flock of Trumpeters on a trail on the grid watching them perform a wing display, dance, and feed on the floor of the forest)

Ruddy Quail-Dove Geotrygon montana

Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna

Scarlet Macaw Ara macao

Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloroptera

Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severa

Red-bellied Macaw Orthopsittaca manilata

White-eyed Parakeet Aratinga leucophthalmus

Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera

White-bellied Parrot Pionites leucogaster

Mealy Parrot Amazona farinosa

Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana

Amazonian Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium hardyi

Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis

Rufous-breasted Hermit Glaucis hirsuta

White-bearded Hermit Phaethornis hispidus

Needle-billed Hermit Phaethornis philippii

Pavonine Quetzal Pharomachrus pavoninus

Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus momota

Bluish-fronted Jacamar Galbula cyanescens

Paradise Jacamar Galbula dea

Collared Puffbird Bucco capensis

Striolated Puffbird Nystalus striolatus

Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons

White-fronted Nunbird Monasa morphoeus

Swallow-wing Chelidoptera tenebrosa

Brown-mandibled Aracari Pteroglossus mariae

Curl-crested Aracari Pteroglossus beauharnaesii

Golden-collared Toucanet Selenidera reinwardtii

Cuvier's Toucan Ramphastos cuvieri

Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Melanerpes cruentatus

Red-stained Woodpecker Veniliornis affinis

Red-necked Woodpecker Campephilus rubricollis

Rufous-tailed Xenops Xenops milleri

Slender-billed Xenops Xenops tenuirostris

Chestnut-winged Hookbill Ancistrops strigilatus

Black-tailed Leaftosser Sclerurus caudacutus

Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa

Long-tailed Woodcreeper Deconychura longicauda

Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Glyphorynchus spirurus

Straight-billed Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus picus

Spix's Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus spixii

Buff-throated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus guttatus

Red-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus trochilirostris

Mouse-colored Antshrike Thamnophilus murinus

Spot-winged Antshrike Pygiptila stellaris

Bluish-slate Antshrike Thamnomanes schistogynus

(Flock leader here acting like Cinereous Antshrike in Ecuador)

White-flanked Antwren Myrmotherula axillaris

Long-winged Antwren Myrmotherula longipennis

Gray Antwren Myrmotherula menetriesii

Striated Antbird Drymophila devillei

Gray Antbird Cercomacra cinerascens

White-browed Antbird Myrmoborus leucophrys

White-lined Antbird Percnostola lophotes

Black-faced Antthrush Formicarius analis

Band-tailed Manakin Pipra fasciicauda

Round-tailed Manakin Pipra chloromeros

Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin Tyranneutes stolzmanni

Sepia-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon amaurocephalus

Ringed Antpipit Corythopis torquata

Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Terenotriccus erythrurus

Sirystes Sirystes sibilator

Moustached Wren Thryothorus genibarbis

Violaceous Jay Cyanocorax violaceus

Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus

Buff-rumped Warbler Basileuterus fulvicauda

Yellow-backed Tanager Hemithraupis flavicollis

White-winged Shrike-Tanager Lanio versicolor

(eye level close views of this canopy species)

Flame-crested Tanager Tachyphonus cristatus

White-shouldered Tanager Tachyphonus luctuosus

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager Habia rubica

Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo

White-lored Euphonia Euphonia chrysopasta

Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster

Turquoise Tanager Tangara mexicana

Paradise Tanager Tangara chilensis

Green-and-gold Tanager Tangara schrankii

Bay-headed Tanager Tangara gyrola

Black-faced Dacnis Dacnis lineata

Slate-colored Grosbeak Saltator grossus

Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela

Casqued Oropendola Psarocolius oseryi

Crested Oropendola Psarocolius decumanus

Amazonian Oropendola Gymnostinops bifasciatus

MAMMALS

Saddleback Tamarin

Emperor Tamarin

Dusky Titi Monkey

Common Squirrel Monkey

Red Howler Monkey

South American Coati

Brazilian Tapir - one every hour from 8:30 p.m. as we slept on platform

Southern Amazon Red Squirrel

Squirrel

Old Bamboo Trail on Madre de Dios River

Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna

Rufous-breasted Piculet Picumnus rufiventris

White-throated Woodpecker Piculus leucolaemus

Crested Foliage-gleaner Anabazenops dorsalis

*Manu Antbird Cercomacra manu

White-browed Antbird Myrmoborus leucophrys

Warbling Antbird Hypocnemis cantator

*Goeldi's Antbird Myrmeciza goeldii

Black-faced Antthrush Formicarius analis

*Rufous-fronted Antthrush Formicarius rufifrons

(very difficult in this location as bird is wary of tape. Took us two trips about three hours per trip to finally see it well. I hear it might be easier around Manu Park Lodge)

Amazonian Antpitta Hylopezus berlepschi

(great views just beside the trail)

Thrush-like Wren Campylorhynchus turdinus

Amazonian Oropendola Gymnostinops bifasciatus

MAMMALS

White-lipped Peccary

Bamboo Island across the River from Manu Wildlife Center

We returned here three times that we could have been on the trails at MWC because the bamboo specialists were so difficult. We finally saw Bamboo Antshrike here which would be easy August-November. And Ihering's Antwren was difficult. I particularly was obsessed with the Peruvian Recurvebill, which I saw two of the three times we were here. This bird was the most fascinating of the trip and I would gladly go back and watch it some more. The first time we heard the loud raucous call in some new bamboo. Colin played tape and the bird came right in, perching sideways very low on a palm tree trunk, but with its head turned away from us so the bill wasn't in clear view. It only perched for a second then disappeared. The second time we saw it was on a minor antswarm with Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaners and White-browed Antibirds. The Recurvebill seemed to be dominating the flock at the swarm, not only in size but also in voice. We watched it flying down to the ground and then back up, but poor views through palm fronds and foliage. I wish we had been closer. The bird is a monster and I left wanting to observe this bird more and with a greater appreciation for furnariids.

Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera

White-bearded Hermit Phaethornis hispidus

*Peruvian Recurvebill Simoxenops ucayalae

Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner Automolus rufipileatus

*Bamboo Antshrike Cymbilaimus sanctaemariae

*Ihering's Antwren Myrmotherula iheringi

*Manu Antbird Cercomacra manu

White-browed Antbird Myrmoborus leucophrys

Dusky-tailed Flatbill Ramphotrigon fuscicauda

Red-capped Cardinal Paroaria gularis

Amazonian Oropendola Gymnostinops bifasciatus

Cocha Blanco oxbow lake

We came here for the Giant Otters. Security has been tightened since a female was killed and her two cubs stolen for sale in Puerto Maldonado. Luckily they were purchased by SelvaSur conservationists and reintroduced to another oxbow, but a full-time manager does what he can to guard the lake and the remaining three otters. We came in the morning and set up our portable chairs on the moving platform hoping that our journey to the left end of the oxbow and back would yield otters. Your boatmen are not allowed to chase them and there is only one route. Luckily the otter guard spotted them behind us and we watched them swim across the lake, and they became more curious when we returned, one swimming up to the platform for a closer look. Perhaps the male defending his territory? We were glad we brought the scope so we could get great looks at them. Luckily a Blue-throated Piping-guan flew over the lake and perched in a bare tree. Antbirds along the banks were very cooperative, and we had a much desired flyover of Orange-cheeked Parrot, which meant we could skip the trip to the Macaw lick the next morning. We had seen all the species that might come to the lick and didn't want to spend the hours in the boat and hours in the hide that we could spend looking for other species.

Anhinga Anhinga anhinga

Cocoi Heron Ardea cocoi

Striated Heron Butorides striatus

Horned Screamer Anhima cornuta

Blue-throated Piping-Guan Pipile cumanensis

Hoatzin Opisthocomus hoazin

Pale-vented Pigeon Columba cayennensis

Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna

Scarlet Macaw Ara macao

Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloroptera

Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severa

White-eyed Parakeet Aratinga leucophthalmus

Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera

Orange-cheeked Parrot Pionopsitta barrabandi

Mealy Parrot Amazona farinosa

Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona

Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana

Swallow-wing Chelidoptera tenebrosa

Amazonian Streaked-Antwren Myrmotherula multostriata

*Band-tailed Antbird Hypocnemoides maculicauda

*Silvered Antbird Sclateria naevia

Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus

Lesser Kiskadee Philohydor lictor

MAMMALS

Saddleback Tamarin

Giant Otter

Cocha Nuevo (bamboo habitat)

Manu Safaris has developed this bamboo habitat as a platform camping eco-tourist site. The bamboo trails have been widened to around eight feet and the birds seemed to stay far back. But we still saw a few good ones. There were a lot of people camping here. They were bathing from a log in the river that Arrico the boatman told us has electric eels and there were bites on their legs from mosquitos. We were glad we were staying at MWC.

Undulated Tinamou Crypturellus undulatus

Black Caracara Daptrius ater

Scaly-naped Parrot Amazona mercenaria

White-bearded Hermit Phaethornis hispidus

Blue-crowned Trogon Trogon curucui

Broad-billed Motmot Electron platyrhynchum

Bluish-fronted Jacamar Galbula cyanescens

Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons

Slender-billed Xenops Xenops tenuirostris

Long-winged Antwren Myrmotherula longipennis

Gray Antwren Myrmotherula menetriesii

+**White-cheeked Tody-Tyrant Poecilotriccus albifacies

Large-headed Flatbill Ramphotrigon megacephala

Dull-capped Attila Attila bolivianus

Violaceous Jay Cyanocorax violaceus

Slate-colored Grosbeak Saltator grossus

Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela

Crested Oropendola Psarocolius decumanus

Cocha Comungo

Manu Safaris has developed this bamboo habitat as a platform camping eco-tourist site. The bamboo trails have been widened to around eight feet and the birds seemed to stay far back. But we still saw a few good ones. There were a lot of people camping here. They were bathing from a log in the river that Arrico the boatman told us has electric eels and there were bites on their legs from mosquitos. We were glad we were staying at MWC.

Cinereous Tinamou Crypturellus cinereus

Undulated Tinamou Crypturellus undulatus

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus

Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura

Greater Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes melambrotus

King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa

Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris

*Razor-billed Curassow Mitu tuberosa

Hoatzin Opisthocomus hoazin

Gray-fronted Dove Leptotila rufaxilla

Scarlet Macaw Ara macao

Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloroptera

Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severa

Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera

Mealy Parrot Amazona farinosa

Gray-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris

Pale-tailed Barbthroat Threnetes niger

Collared Trogon Trogon collaris

***Chestnut Jacamar Galbalcyrhynchus purusianus

Bluish-fronted Jacamar Galbula cyanescens

Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons

White-fronted Nunbird Monasa morphoeus

Bluish-slate Antshrike Thamnomanes schistogynus

Rusty-belted Tapaculo Liosceles Thoracicus

Cinereous Mourner Laniocera hypopyrra

Band-tailed Manakin Pipra fasciicauda

Lesser Kiskadee Philohydor lictor

Black-tailed Tityra Tityra cayana

Thrush-like Wren Campylorhynchus turdinus

Silver-beaked Tanager Ramphocelus carbo

White-lored Euphonia Euphonia chrysopasta

Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster

Paradise Tanager Tangara chilensis

Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela

Amazonian Oropendola Gymnostinops bifasciatus

Boca Manu Airstrip

The woods on either side of the trail to the airstrip from the river actually yielded an endemic and we heard and almost saw a bird we had missed at Amazonia Lodge.

Bluish-fronted Jacamar Galbula cyanescens

+Fine-barred Piculet Picumnus subtilis

H-Johannes' Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus johannis

Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox

Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus

Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus

Orange-bellied Euphonia Euphonia xanthogaster

Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina

Double-collared Seedeater Sporophila caerulescens

Lomas de Lanchay near Lima (250m)

At Lima airport we met up with friends who had been in the North with Barry Walker and we shared stories of our trips and the unusual weather we had experienced. It was election day in Peru, and everything was closed but we decided to try the reserve at Lomas de Lanchay anyway. We drove out of Lima into the hot, arid desert habitat - gray and rocky with cactus, moisture provided only by coastal fog. In a side canyon we finally found +Cactus Canastero. The reserve at Lomas de Lanchay was closed, so we hiked around the gate and up the road and the hills to find a +Thick-billed Miner. The vegetation by the side the road which usually has Least Seedsnipe was dry and we didn't see any. Their favorite food are shoots and there just weren't any.

Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle Geranoaetus melanoleucus

Black Caracara Daptrius ater

American Kestrel Falco sparverius

Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis

*Tawny-throated Dotterel Oreopholus ruficollis

Croaking Ground-Dove Columbina cruziana

+*Coastal Miner Geositta peruviana

Grayish Miner Geositta maritima

+*Thick-billed Miner Geositta crassirostris

+**Cactus Canastero Asthenes cactorum

Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus

Short-tailed Field-Tyrant Muscigralla brevicauda

Blue-and-white Swallow Pygochelidon cyanoleuca

Cinereous Conebill Conirostrum cinereum

Blue-and-yellow Tanager Thraupis bonariensis

Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis

Santa Eulalia Road above Huanico (2,500-3,000m)

We were feeling the effects back in the altitude of Peru this time North of Lima. The forest was fragmented and scrubby and dry, not like the more humid forest on the East slope, but each patch was good as we headed up to the Puna zone. +Chestnut-breasted Warbling-Finch has been seen in the upper stretches of this road but we didn't see it. We were impressed with the Inca-Finches and the amazing hummingbirds in this habitat.

Andean Tinamou Nothoprocta pentlandii

Andean Condor Vultur gryphus

Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle Geranoaetus melanoleucus

Variable Hawk Buteo polyosoma

Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata

Bare-faced Ground-Dove Metriopelia ceciliae

Black-winged Ground-Dove Metriopelia melanoptera

White-tipped Dove Leptotila verreauxi

Peruvian Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium peruanum

Andean Swift Aeronautes andecolus

Sparkling Violet-ear Colibri coruscans

Giant Hummingbird Patagona gigas

+**Bronze-tailed Comet Polyonymus caroli

*Oasis Hummingbird Rhodopis vesper

Peruvian Sheartail Thaumastura cora

Purple-collared Woodstar Myrtis fanny

Black-necked Woodpecker Colaptes atricollis

+*Rusty-crowned Tit-Spinetail Leptasthenura pileata

+Canyon Canastero Asthenes pudibunda

*Pied-crested Tit-Tyrant Anairetes reguloides

Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant Anairetes flavirostris

White-browed Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca leucophrys

Streak-throated Bush-Tyrant Myiotheretes striaticollis

Spot-billed Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola maculirostris

Blue-and-white Swallow Pygochelidon cyanoleuca

House Wren Troglodytes aedon

Chiguanco Thrush Turdus chiguanco

Hooded Siskin Carduelis magellanica

Cinereous Conebill Conirostrum cinereum

Plumbeous Sierra-Finch Phrygilus unicolor

Band-tailed Sierra-Finch Phrygilus alaudinus

+***Great Inca-Finch Incaspiza pulchra

Band-tailed Seedeater Catamenia analis

Rusty Flowerpiercer Diglossa sittoides

Greenish Yellow-Finch Sicalis olivascens

+*Rusty-bellied Brush-Finch Atlapetes nationi

Golden-bellied Grosbeak Pheucticus chrysogaster

Scrub Blackbird Dives warszewiczi

Marcopomacocha (4600m+)

This was the highest altitude I have ever been anywhere in the world. It was a long drive up to the bogs and snowcapped peaks where we would search for some of the rarest birds in Peru and South America. Visibility was good as all the growth was stunted, but our movement was slow and we tired easily. It was one of the greatest days of birding in my life especially for the furnariids we saw.

Andean Goose Chloephaga melanoptera

Crested Duck Anas specularioides

Mountain Caracara Phalcoboenus megalopterus

Andean Lapwing Vanellus resplendens

**Diademed Sandpiper-Plover Phegornis mitchellii

(two in one location, five in the other in various plumages)

Puna Snipe Gallinago andina

Rufous-bellied Seedsnipe Attagis gayi

(big flocks of them)

Gray-breasted Seedsnipe Thinocorus orbignyianus

Andean Hillstar Oreotrochilus estella

+***Black-breasted Hillstar Oreotrochilus melanogaster

Olivaceous Thornbill Chalcostigma olivaceum

(feeds by walking on the ground)

Andean Flicker Colaptes rupicola

+*Dark-winged Miner Geositta saxicolina

Pain-breasted Earthcreeper Upucerthia jelskii

+Striated Earthcreeper Upucerthia serrana

White-winged Cinclodes Cinclodes atacamensis

+***White-bellied Cinclodes Cinclodes palliatus

Cordilleran Canastero Asthenes modesta

+***Junin Canastero Asthenes virgata

Line-fronted Canastero Asthenes urubambensis

Spot-billed Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola maculirostris

Cinereous Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola cinerea

White-fronted Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola albifrons

Ochre-naped Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola flavinucha

Black Siskin Carduelis atrata

White-winged Diuca-Finch Diuca speculifera

Bright-rumped Yellow-Finch Sicalis uropygialis

Stops on the road from Lima to Pucusana, mini-pelagic from Pucusana, Villa Marshes near Lima (sea level)

Our last day in Peru was spent at a leisurely pace along the coast between Lima and the fishing village of Pucusana. We stopped in San Pedro and birded the agricultural fields and the coast, and we stopped along the highway wherever we saw any habitat. We spent a few hours at the Villa Marshes including the coastal habitat where we searched for Least Seedsnipe through the fence but no luck.

*Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti

Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps

Great Grebe Podiceps major

Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus

Peruvian Booby Sula variegata

Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii

Red-legged Cormorant Phalacrocorax gaimardi

Great Egret Ardea alba

Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea

Snowy Egret Egretta thula

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis

Striated Heron Butorides striatus

Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax

Puna Ibis Plegadis ridgwayi

White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis

Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera

Andean Duck Oxyura ferruginea

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus

Cinereous Harrier Circus cinereus

American Kestrel Falco sparverius

Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus

Slate-colored Coot Fulica ardesiaca

Blackish Oystercatcher Haematopus ater

Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus

Peruvian Thick-knee Burhinus superciliaris

Killdeer Charadrius vociferus

Tawny-throated Dotterel Oreopholus ruficollis

Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres

Surfbird Aphriza virgata

Band-tailed Gull Larus belcheri

Gray Gull Larus modestus

Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus

Gray-headed Gull Larus cirrocephalus

Inca Tern Larosterna inca

Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata

Pacific Dove Zenaida meloda

Croaking Ground-Dove Columbina cruziana

Groove-billed Ani Crotophaga sulcirostris

Wren-like Rushbird Phleocryptes melanops

Many-colored Rush-Tyrant Tachuris rubrigastra

Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus

Dark-faced Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola macloviana

Short-tailed Field-Tyrant Muscigralla brevicauda

House Wren Troglodytes aedon

Collared Warbling-Finch Poospiza hispaniolensis

Variable Seedeater Sporophila corvina

Drab Seedeater Sporophila simplex


Copyright © 1992-2012 John Wall